|Year : 2013 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 173-176
Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of volatile constituents from the roots, leaves, and seeds of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) grown in Egypt
Elsayed A Aboutabl1, Mona E El-Tantawy2, Manal M Shams2
1 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Cairo, Egypt
|Date of Submission||30-Apr-2013|
|Date of Acceptance||11-Jul-2013|
|Date of Web Publication||31-Dec-2013|
Elsayed A Aboutabl
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr-el-Aini Street, 11562 Cairo
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background and objective
As no literature was traced dealing with the volatile constituents of the leaves or the seeds of Arctium lappa L., it was deemed of interest to carry out a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis and antimicrobial activity study of the volatile constituents of roots, leaves, and seeds of the plant grown in Egypt.
Materials and methods
The volatile constituents of the roots, leaves, and seeds were analyzed by GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity was tested using the agar well diffusion technique.
Results and conclusion
GC/MS of the volatile constituents from the leaves showed 19 identified compounds, the major being caryophyllene oxide (54.2%), followed by β-elemene (6.2%) and β-costol (4.0%). Analysis of the volatile constituents of the roots revealed 14 identified compounds, the major being caryophyllene oxide (51%), followed by aromadendrene (16%) and isoaromadendrene epoxide (6.4%). Analysis of the volatile constituents of the seeds revealed 22 identified compounds, the major being E-citral (28.8%), followed by geraniol (20.3%) and Z-citral (9.5%). The volatile constituents of the leaves and roots exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against bacteria and significant antifungal activity, in comparison with the standards used, whereas the volatile constituents of the seeds showed moderate antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi.
Keywords: antibacterial, antifungal, Arctium lappa L., leaves, roots, seeds, volatile constituents
|How to cite this article:|
Aboutabl EA, El-Tantawy ME, Shams MM. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of volatile constituents from the roots, leaves, and seeds of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) grown in Egypt. Egypt Pharmaceut J 2013;12:173-6
|How to cite this URL:|
Aboutabl EA, El-Tantawy ME, Shams MM. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of volatile constituents from the roots, leaves, and seeds of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) grown in Egypt. Egypt Pharmaceut J [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Sep 19];12:173-6. Available from: http://www.epj.eg.net/text.asp?2013/12/2/173/124036
| Introduction|| |
Arctium lappa L. or burdock (Asteraceae) is generally considered a safe and edible food product. Burdock root is commonly used as food in Asia , and is known in Japan as Gobo  . Studies on the biological activities of extracts from different organs of burdock and compounds isolated thereof were carried out including antipyretic, antimicrobial, diuretic, diaphoretic, hypoglycemic  , in-vitro antioxidant ,,,,,, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic , , antiulcer  , antimutagenic , , and antitumour activities ,, . The plant was used abroad in many pharmaceutical preparations such as Flor-Essence and Essiac, which were suggested to improve the quality of life and prolong survival in cancer patients  . In our previous studies , on this plant cultivated in Egypt, its phytoconstituents, tissue culture products, and certain biological activities were evaluated.
A study on the volatile constituents from A. lappa L. root  revealed that the hydrocarbon fraction constituted 80% of the total volatiles, whereas another study  showed 63 identified compounds, methyl linolenate being the major compound. No literature was traced dealing with the volatile constituents of the leaves or the seeds. In the present work, the volatile constituents of this plant grown in Egypt were studied.
| Materials and methods|| |
The plant A. lappa L. was cultivated in the experimental station, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, from the seeds kindly offered to Dr E.A. Aboutabl by colleagues at the Botanical Garden, Bohn, Germany. Voucher specimens were deposited at the Herbarium, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University. The leaves and seeds were collected in July during the fruiting stage, whereas the roots were collected after the first year of growth and cut into small pieces.
Bacterial and fungal strains
Gram-negative bacteria: E. coli (NCT-10410); gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus subtilis (NCIB); and fungi: Aspergillus niger (ferm-Bam C-21) and Candida albicans were kindly offered by Fermentation, Biotechnology, and Applied Microbiology Center, Al Azhar University, Cairo.
Preparation of volatile constituents
A weight of 500 g of fresh roots, leaves, and seeds, respectively, were separately subjected to hydrodistillation  ; they yielded (after drying over anhydrous sodium sulfate) 0.06, 0.1, and 0.2% v/w, respectively, and were stored at 4-6°C.
The volatile components isolated from roots, leaves, and seeds were subjected to GC/MS analysis on Trace GC 2000 (Thermo) coupled with Finnigan mass spectrophotometer (SSQ7000) Frankfurt, Germany. Column: DB-5 (5% phenyl methyl polysiloxane); internal diameter: 0.25 mm; carrier gas: helium; flow rate: 1 ml/min; injection mode: splitless; temperature programming: 40°C at 0-5°C/min, then 40-140°C at 5°C/min, then 140-260°C at 6°C/min; total run time 45 min; scan mass range: 40-500 m/z. The identified components, their retention times, Kovat's indices, and mass spectral data are tabulated in [Table 1]. The components were identified by comparing their retention times, Kovat's indices, and mass fragmentation patterns with those of available libraries and standard references , .
|Table 1: GC/MS analysis of the volatile components from the roots, leaves, and seeds of Arctium lappa L. cultivated in Egypt |
Click here to view
Antimicrobial activity was tested using the agar well diffusion technique  . Nutrient agar was used for inoculation of bacteria, whereas Dox media were used for inoculation of fungi. Each volatile oil in 50 μl aliquots were separately inoculated into wells, each of 1 cm diameter. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h for bacteria and at 25°C for fungi. Chloramphenicol (Miphenicol; Misr Co., Cairo, Egypt) and cephalexin (Keflex; CEPH International Corporation, Cairo, Egypt), and fluconazole (Flucoral; SEDICO Pharmaceutical Co., Cairo, Egypt) and amikacin were used as reference standards.
| Results|| |
Analysis of the volatile components from the leaves [Table 1] showed 19 identified compounds, representing 80.4% of the total composition. The identified fraction had four oxygenated compounds contributing 61% and 15 unoxygenated compounds contributing 19.3%. The major compound was caryophyllene oxide (54.2%), followed by β-elemene (6.2%) and β-costol (4.0%). Analysis of the volatile oil from the roots [Table 1] showed 14 identified compounds, representing 85.4% of the total composition. The identified fraction had five oxygenated compounds contributing 61.2% and nine unoxygenated compounds contributing 21.2%. The major compound was caryophyllene oxide (51.1%), followed by aromadendrene (16%) and isoaromadendrene epoxide (6.4%). Analysis of the volatile oil from the seeds [Table 1] showed 22 identified compounds, representing 80.4% of the total composition. The identified fraction had 13 oxygenated compounds (representing 68.1%) and nine unoxygenated compounds (representing 12.4%). The major compound was E-citral (28.8%), followed by geraniol (20.3%) and Z-citral (9.5%). From the data in [Table 2] and [Figure 1], it was concluded that the volatile constituents of the leaves and roots showed moderate antimicrobial activity against bacteria and higher antifungal activity in comparison with the standards used. The volatile constituents of the seeds show moderate antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. The volatile constituents of the leaves and the roots show minimum inhibitory concentration [Table 3] lesser than that of the standard, flucoral.
|Table 2: Antimicrobial activity of volatile constituents of Arctium lappa L. roots, leaves, and seeds|
Click here to view
|Table 3: Minimum inhibitory concentration of the volatile constituents of Arctium lappa L. roots, leaves, and seeds|
Click here to view
| Discussion and conclusion|| |
The percentages of the different classes of volatile constituents from A. lappa leaves, roots, and seeds are compiled in [Table 4]. No literature was found on the composition of volatile constituents of A. lappa L. leaves and seeds. The available literature on the volatile constituents of A. lappa roots  showed that the total composition comprised 80% hydrocarbons. In this study, the volatile constituents from the root of this plant cultivated in Egypt comprised 21.2% hydrocarbons. The volatile constituents of the leaves and the roots showed caryophyllene oxide as a major component, representing 54.2 and 51.1%, respectively. In addition, the major volatile constituent of the seeds was E-citral (28. 8%). In total, oxygenated compounds represent over 60% of the volatile constituents from the three organs of the plant. There is a big difference in the volatile constituents of the root of A. lappa grown in Egypt, which may be attributed to the environmental conditions. This is the first report on the volatile constituents of A. lappa L. grown in Egypt. The antimicrobial activity of the volatile constituents of this plant cultivated in Egypt was found to be significant. The volatile constituents of the leaves and roots showed higher antifungal activity, because of higher percentages of caryophyllene oxide.
|Table 4: Percentages of different classes of identified volatile constituents of Arctium lappa L. leaves, roots, and seeds|
Click here to view
| Acknowledgements|| |
The Fermentation, Biotechnology, and Applied Microbiology Center, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt, is acknowledged for helping in studying the antimicrobial activity.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
|1.||Bown D. Encyclopedia of herbs and their uses 1995; London: Dorling Kindersley; 240-241. |
|2.||Leung A. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients 2nd edn 1996; New York: John Wiley and Sons. |
|3.||Kardošová A, Ebringerová A, Alföldi J, Nosál'ová G, Fraòová S, Høíbalová V. A biologically active fructan from the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules. Int J Biol Macromol 2003; 33:135-140. |
|4.||Barnes J, Anderson L, Phillipson J. Herbal medicines 3rd edn 2008; UK: Pharmaceutical Press; 102-103. |
|5.||Cai Y, Luo Q, Sun M, Corke H. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer. Life Sci 2004; 74:2157-2184. |
|6.||Kardošová A, Machová E. Antioxidant activity of medicinal plant polysaccharides. Fitoterapia 2006; 77:367-373. |
|7.||Ferracane R, Graziani G, Gallo M, Fogliano V, Ritieni A. Metabolic profile of the bioactive compounds of burdock (Arctium lappa) seeds, roots and leaves. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2010; 51:399-404. |
|8.||Maruta Y, Kawabata J, Niki R. Antioxidative caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in the roots of burdock (Arctium lappa L.). J Agric Food Chem 1995; 43:2592-2595. |
|9.||Predes FS, Ruiz ALTG, Carvalho JE, Foglio MA, Dolder H. Antioxidative and in vitro antiproliferative activity of Arctium lappa root extracts. BMC Complement Altern Med 2011; 11:25 |
|10.||Lin C-C, Lin J-M, Yang J-J, Chuang S-C, Ujiie T. Anti-inflammatory and radical scavenge effects of Arctium lappa. Am J Chin Med 1996; 24:127-137. |
|11.||Lin SC, Lin CH, Lin CC, Lin YH, Chen CF, Chen IC, et al. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride. J Biomed Sci 2002; 9:401-409. |
|12.||Tsai W-J, Chang C-T, Wang G-J, Lee T-H, Chang S-F, Lu S-C, et al. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Chin Med 2011; 6:12 |
|13.||Sohn E-H, Jang S-A, Joo H, Park S, Kang S-C, Lee C-H, et al. Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of butanol extract from Arctium lappa L. Clin Mol Allergy 2011; 9:4 |
|14.||Os'kina OA, Pashinskii VG, Kanakina TA, Povet'eva TN, Gribel' NV. The mechanisms of the anti-ulcer action of plant drug agents. Eksp Klin Farmakol 1999; 62:37-39. |
|15.||Ching-Kuei H, Ching-Chuan K, Wenchang C. Changes in chemical composition and antimutagenicity effect of Burdock extract under various cooking durations. Shipin Kexue 1996; 23:693-701 |
|16.||Liu L, Tang L. Studies on antimutagenicity of Burdock, Acta. Academiae Medicine Nanjing 1997; 4:343-345. |
|17.||Hirose M, Yamaguchi T, Lin C, Kimoto N, Futakuchi M, Kono T, et al. Effects of arctiin on PhIP-induced mammary, colon and pancreatic carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats and MeIQx-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in male F344 rats. Cancer Lett 2000; 155: 79-88. |
|18.||Kasai H, Fukada S, Yamaizumi Z, Sugie S, Mori H. Action of chlorogenic acid in vegetables and fruits as an inhibitor of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation in vitro and in a rat carcinogenesis model. Food Chem Toxicol 2000; 38:467-471. |
|19.||Ming DS, Guns ES, Eberding A, Towers GHN. Isolation and characterization of compounds with anti-prostate cancer activity from Arctium lappa L. using bioactivity-guided fractionation. Pharm Biol 2004; 42:44-48. |
|20.||Tamayo C, Richardson MA, Diamond S, Skoda I. The chemistry and biological activity of herbs used in Flor-Essence (TM) herbal tonic and Essiac (TM). Phytother Res 2000; 14:1-14. |
|21.||Aboutabl ES, El-Tantawy M, Sokar N, Shams MM, Selim A. Bioactive lignans and other phenolics from roots, leaves and seeds of Arctium lappa L. grown in Egypt. Egyptian Pharm J 2012; 11:59-65. |
|22.||Aboutabl ES, El-Tantawy M, Sokkar N, Shams MM. DNA fingerprinting and profile of phenolics in root and root calli of Arctium lappa L. grown in Egypt. Egyptian Pharm J 2013; 12:57-62. |
|23.||Washino T. Volatile constituents of Arctium lappa L. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 1985; 59:389-389. |
|24.||Wang X, Cheng C, Yang C, Zheng C. Analysis of essential oil from Arctium lappa L. Nat Prod Res Dev 2004; 16:33-35. |
|25.||Egyptian pharmacopoeia 2005; Cairo: General Organization for Government Printing Office. |
|26.||Adams RP. Identification of essential oils by ion trap mass spectroscopy 2009; New York and London: Academic Press Inc. |
|27.||Formacek V, Kubeczka KH. Essential oils analysis by capillary GC and C13 NMR spectroscopy 1982; New York and London: John Wiley & Sons. |
|28.||Cooper RE FW Kavanageh, ed. Analytical Microbiology. 1972; New York and London: Academic Press; pp 1-11. |
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]
|This article has been cited by|
||Arctium Species Secondary Metabolites Chemodiversity and Bioactivities
| ||Dongdong Wang,Alexandru Sabin Badarau,Mallappa Kumara Swamy,Subrata Shaw,Filippo Maggi,Luiz Everson da Silva,Víctor López,Andy Wai Kan Yeung,Andrei Mocan,Atanas G. Atanasov |
| ||Frontiers in Plant Science. 2019; 10 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Kinetics, composition and antioxidant activity of burdock ( Arctium lappa ) root extracts obtained with supercritical CO 2 and co-solvent
| ||João Manoel Folador Rodriguez,Ariádine Reder Custódio de Souza,Roberta Letícia Krüger,Michele Cristiane Mesomo Bombardelli,Christiane Schineider Machado,Marcos L. Corazza |
| ||The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 2018; 135: 25 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Overview of the anti-inflammatory effects, pharmacokinetic properties and clinical efficacies of arctigenin and arctiin from Arctium lappa L
| ||Qiong Gao,Mengbi Yang,Zhong Zuo |
| ||Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 2018; 39(5): 787 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|