|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 58-63
Study of soil mycobiota diversity in some new reclaimed areas, Egypt
Abdel-Nasser A Zohri1, Waill A Elkhateeb2, Mohamed B Mazen2, Mohamed Hashem2, Ghoson M Daba2
1 Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
2 Department of Chemistry of Microbial Natural Products, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt
|Date of Submission||17-Dec-2013|
|Date of Acceptance||23-Feb-2014|
|Date of Web Publication||30-Jun-2014|
Waill A Elkhateeb
Department of Chemistry of Microbial Natural Products, National Research Center, Tahrir Street, 12311 Dokki, Giza
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
The objective of this survey was to study the diversity of soil fungi, as they play an important role in knowing the soil quality and increase plant productivity. In this work, the chemical composition of soil samples in newly reclaimed localities at Assiut Governorate was studied; mycobiota of those areas were studied reporting some medically important substances produced by three fungal species, namely Aspergillus terreus, Emericella nidulans, and Penicillium chrysogenum, which recorded the highest occurrence all over the year in different studied areas. Soil samples were collected monthly for a whole year from the four selected reclaimed regions at Assiut Governorate, namely Protectorate of Assiut (PR), El-Ghorayeb (GH), El-Wady El-Assiuty (WA), and Petroleum's Farm (PF), and samples were identified using the morphological and microscopic features according to many references and confirmed by Assiut University Mycological Center (AUMC) followed by physiochemical analysis of soil, including measuring total soluble salts and determining the organic matter content, maximum and minimum temperatures, relative humidity, and soil texture. The highest numbers of fungal genera and species were recorded in PR followed by WA and PF, whereas the lowest numbers were recorded in GH. E. nidulans var. acristata and Penicillium funiculosum were isolated with moderate frequency from GH; Aspergillus aegyptiacus and Aspergillus ustus were isolated with moderate frequency from WA; A. aegyptiacus, Eurotium amstelodami, and Fusarium solani were isolated with moderate frequency from PF; Eurotium repens was isolated only from GH; Arthrinium sacchari, Cochliobolus sativus, and Fusarium xylarioides were isolated only from WA; Aspergillus deflectus, Penicillium expansum, and Rhizopus arrhizus were isolated only from PF; Aspergillus niger, Fusarilla indica, Fusarium semitectum, and Trimmatostroma eriodictyonis were isolated only from PR. There are no adequate mycological studies carried out to describe the fungal flora of these areas. Hence, any information on the endemic mycobiota is of great significance.
Keywords: Fungal isolates, identification, isolation, reclaimed soil
|How to cite this article:|
Zohri ANA, Elkhateeb WA, Mazen MB, Hashem M, Daba GM. Study of soil mycobiota diversity in some new reclaimed areas, Egypt. Egypt Pharmaceut J 2014;13:58-63
|How to cite this URL:|
Zohri ANA, Elkhateeb WA, Mazen MB, Hashem M, Daba GM. Study of soil mycobiota diversity in some new reclaimed areas, Egypt. Egypt Pharmaceut J [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Nov 30];13:58-63. Available from: http://www.epj.eg.net/text.asp?2014/13/1/58/135598
| Introduction|| |
Many investigations have been carried out on the occurrence of soils fungal isolates in many parts all over the world ,,,,,,,. In Egypt, numerous investigations have been made on soil fungi from Upper Egypt, Delta area and Sinai Peninsula as well as from some Wadies at eastern desert of Egypt ,,,,,,. They found that members of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Mucor, and some dematiaceous Hyphomycetes were the most common in various types of Egyptian soils. Mazen and Shaban  studied the fluctuation of soil fungi in wheat fields and found that the most common fungi isolated were Aspergillus (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus versicolor), Humicola grisea, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Trichoderma viride, and Stachybotrys chartarum. Moubasher et al.  isolated 167 species and 10 varieties belonging to 45 genera from 100 soil samples collected from Wadi Bir-El-Ain, and the most common species were A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus, and Aspergillus glaucus group (represented by Aspergillus amstelodami, Aspergillus chevalieri, Aspergillus ruber) and Penicillium chrysogenum. Abdel-Hafez et al.  isolated 122 species and nine varieties belonging to 36 genera from soil samples collected from Sinai Peninsula on glucose-Czapek's agar at 28°C, and the most common species were A. flavus, A. flavus var. columnaris, A. fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, A. niger, A. terreus, Botryotrichum atrogriseum, Chaetomium globosum, F. solani, P. chrysogenum, and S. chartarum. Mazen et al.  mentioned that the occurrence of Fusarium spp. in Egyptian soils was influenced by the soil type and by locality; they also noticed that the most common species were F. oxysporum, F. solani, Fusiform equiseti, Fusiform acuminatum, and Fusarium semitectum. Abdel-Hafez et al.  isolated 118 species in addition to seven varieties belonging to 51 genera from cultivated and desert soils. The results obtained from the three soil type were basically similar, and the most common fungi were A. flavus, A. flavus var. columnaris, A. fumigatus, A. niger, Aspergillus sydowii, A. terreus, B. atrogriseum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Emericella quadrilineata, F. oxysporum, Gibberella fujikuroi, H. grisea, Nectria haematococca, P. chrysogenum, Penicillium citrinum, and Penicillium oxalicum. Most investigations have been made on the fungus flora of agricultural or forest soils. Very few investigations have been carried out on the mycobiota of the newly reclaimed localities at Assiut Governorate.
Protectorate of Assiut (PR), El-Ghorayeb (GH), El-Wady El-Assiuty (WA), and Petroleum's Farm (PF) represent the largest newly reclaimed areas at Assiut Governorate, cultivated with different important crops. There are no adequate mycological studies carried out to describe the fungal flora of these areas. Hence, any information of these areas on the endemic mycobiota is of great significance.
Four areas representing the largest and distinctive regions of newly reclaimed soil at Assiut Governorate were selected. These were PR that lies at 25 km southeast Assiut, GH that lies at 20 km southeast Assiut, WA that lies at 10 km east Assiut, and PF that lies at 10 km northwest Assiut.
Collection of samples
Soil samples were collected monthly for a whole year from the four selected reclaimed regions at Assiut Governorate. Soil samples were collected from patches free from roots according to the method described by Johnson et al.  and could be summarized as the following:
- A sample tube is used, which should be washed thoroughly before starting the sampling. Samples are taken to a depth of 5 inches and the soil is taken directly into clean and sterilized plastic bags (at least five samples are taken at random from each replication).
- The five or more samples from each replication are brought together into one composite sample, which is mixed thoroughly.
- Finally, 10 g (on an oven-dry basis) of the mixed composite samples are used for determining fungal counts by the dilution-plate method as recommended by Johnson et al.  and used in this laboratory by Moubasher et al. .
Chemical analysis of soil
Total soluble salts
The specific electrical conductance in the prepared soil extract was measured by means of conductance meter (YS1 Model 35); the total soluble salts (TSS) in the soil was estimated using the following equation
% TSS in the dry soil = 0.064 × EC(m/cm) × Extrack ratio.
The conversion factor to percentage salts (0.064) was fairly applied for solutions extracted from alkaline and saline soils ,.
Organic matter content
The organic matter content of soil samples was determined by Jackson . A certain amount of soil was digested by chromic acid (for oxidation of organic matter to CO 2 ) and the excess chromic acid was back titrated against standard ferrous sulfate solution in the presence of diphenylamine as an indicator.
Ca 2+ and Mg 2+
The Versene (disodium dihydrogen ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) titration method as recommended by Schwarzenbach and Biedermann  was used for Ca 2+ and Ca 2+ +Mg 2+ determination.
Na + and K +
Flame photometer method  using Carl Zeiss flame photometer was used for determination of cations such as Na + and K + .
A pH meter (WTW pH 90) was used for the determination of soil pH. The electrode was immersed in the soil suspension in a ratio of 1 : 5 (w/v) to avoid the error through higher dilution .
Maximum and minimum temperatures and relative humidity
The values of maximum and minimum temperatures and relative humidity all over the year were obtained from Assiut Forecasting Authority.
Determination of soil texture
The soil type of each locality was determined by the hydrometer method as described by Piper  and used in this laboratory by Moubasher et al. . Soil type was determined from the textural triangular as recommended by Alexander .
Isolation and identification of fungi
The dilution-plate method was used to determine soil fungi as described by Johnson et al.  and used in this laboratory by Moubasher et al.  and can be summarized as follows:
- Soil to be diluted was sifted through a 9-mesh sieve. Three aliquots, each of 5-10 g soil, were placed in previously weighed metal container and dried overnight in an oven at 105°C. The aliquots were then reweighed and the moisture content of the soil sample was calculated.
- Ten grams of soil sample (based on an oven-dry weighed soil) was placed in a graduated cylinder, and sterilized distilled water was added to the soil so that a total volume of 100 ml was reached. The suspension was stirred and poured into 1000 ml Erlenmeyer flask. The flask containing the suspension was shaken on mechanical shaker for 30 min.
- Ten milliliters of the suspension was immediately drawn (while in motion) using sterile Menzies' dipper  and transferred immediately to a known volume of sterile distilled water blank until the desired final dilution was reached. Each suspension was shaken by hand for few minutes.
- One milliliter of the desired dilution was transferred directly into each of the sterilized Petri dish More Detailses followed by 12-15 ml of glucose-Czapek's agar medium cooled to just above solidifying temperature. The dishes were rotated by hand in a broad swirling motion so that the diluted soil was dispersed in the agar.
- Five plates were used for each sample and incubated at 28 ± 1°C for 7 days during which the developing colonies were identified and counted [expressed as colony forming unit (cfu)/g dry soil].
- Glucose-Czapek's agar  used in this laboratory by Moubasher et al.  was used throughout the present investigation for isolation and identification of fungi. This media was supplemented with bacteriostatic agents. The composition of this medium is as follows: agar, 15.0 g; NaNO 3 , 3.0 g; KH 2 PO 4 , 1.0 g; MgSO 4×7H 2 O, 0.5 g; KCl, 0.5 g; FeSO 4×7H 2 O, 0.01 g; glucose, 10.0 g; and 1000 ml distilled water.
- For further investigation, growing fungal species were obtained on slants of glucose-Czapek's agar medium and kept in refrigerator at 4°C.
Identification of fungal genera and species
Identification of the isolated fungi during this investigation was carried out using the morphological and microscopic features according to the following reported books:
- Ainsworth  as a dictionary of the fungi.
- Barron  for the genera of Hyphomycetes.
- Booth [29,30] for Fusarium spp.
- Onions and Barron  for Paecilomyces spp.
- Domsch et al.  for soil fungi in general.
- Ellis [33,34] for dematiaceous Hyphomycetes.
- Kendrick  for the genera of imperfect fungi.
- Moubasher  for fungi in general.
- Pitt  for Penicillium spp.
- Raper and Fennell  for Aspergillus spp.
- Rifai  for Trichoderma spp.
- Simmons  for Alternaria and Ulocladium spp.
- Zycha  for Mucorales.
In addition, identification of the isolated fungi was reviewed and compared with the same species deposited in Assiut University Mycological Center (AUMC).
| Results and discussion|| |
Mycobiota of protectorate of assiut soil
Thirty-three species and three species varieties belonging to 18 genera in addition to the fungi with sterile mycelia were isolated and identified during this study. Aspergillus was the most common genus, with 10 species in addition to one species variety. Results showed that A. flavus and Aspergillus japonicus were the most common species. A. terreus and Aspergillus aegyptiacus were also isolated in high frequencies, whereas A. sydowii and A. versicolor were isolated in moderate frequencies. Chaetomium was the second common genus and C. globosum was the commonest species. Emericella was the third commonest genus. The most common species and variety were Emericella nidulans and E. nidulans var. acristata. Penicillium and Stachybotrys were also isolated in high frequency, and the most common species were P. chrysogenum and S. chartarum. The remaining genera and species were isolated either in moderate, low, or rare frequency of occurrence as shown in [Table 1].
|Table 1: Occurrence remark of fungi isolated from the different selected areas|
Click here to view
Mycobiota of El-Ghorayeb area soil
Twenty-eight species and two species varieties belonging to 17 genera in addition to fungi with sterile mycelia were isolated and identified during this study. Aspergillus was the most frequent genus. Eight species were isolated and identified. A. japonicus ranked the first commonest species. A. flavus and A. terreus were also isolated with high (H) frequencies. The remaining species were isolated in moderate (M), low (L), or rare (R) frequencies of occurrence as in [Table 1]. Emericella came behind Aspergillus and the isolated species were as following: E. nidulans, E. nidulans var. acristata, and E. nidulans var. lata. Penicillium ranked the third genus, with two species, P. chrysogenum and Penicillium funiculosum, recorded in moderate frequencies. C. globosum in addition to the fungi with white sterile mycelia were recovered in moderate frequencies. The remaining genera and species were isolated either in low or rare frequencies of occurrence.
Mycobiota of El-Wady El-Assiuty soil
Thirty-seven species and one species variety belonging to 21 genera were isolated and identified. Aspergillus was the leader and A. japonicus was the most dominant among its eight isolated species followed by A. sydowii and A. terreus, whereas A. aegyptiacus, A. flavus, and Aspergillus ustus were isolated in moderate frequencies. The remaining species were detected in either low or rare frequencies of occurrence. Botryotrichum, Chaetomium, and Penicillium were also isolated in high frequencies, and Botryotrichum piluliferum, C. globosum, and P. chrysogenum were the most common species as can be seen in [Table 1]. E. nidulans and E. nidulans var. acristata were recorded in moderate frequencies. The remaining genera and species in addition to the fungi with dark sterile mycelia were isolated either in low or rare frequencies of occurrence.
Mycobiota of Petroleum's Farm soil
Fifty-six species and three species varieties belonging to 29 genera in addition to the fungi with sterile mycelia were isolated and identified during this study. The most common genus was Aspergillus and 11 species were isolated and identified. A. japonicus was the common species and A. terreus was the second common species isolated. A. flavus and A. ustus were also isolated in high frequencies, whereas the remaining Aspergillus spp. were isolated either in moderate, low, or rare frequencies. Emericella (three species and two varieties) and Fusarium (five species and one variety) in addition to the fungi with dark sterile mycelia were also isolated in high frequencies, and the most common species were E. nidulans, F. oxysporum, and F. solani. Penicillium (five species) was isolated in high frequency and the most common species was P. chrysogenum. B. piluliferum, Rhizopus stolonifer, C. globosum, Cochliobolus spicifer, Eurotium amstelodami, and S. chartarum in addition to the fungi with white sterile mycelia were isolated in moderate frequencies. The remaining genera and species were isolated in either low or rare frequencies of occurrence as shown in [Table 1].
Few investigations have been carried out on the soil mycobiota of the newly reclaimed areas at Assiut Governorate especially in four reclaimed areas, namely GH, WA, PF, and PR. Analysis of some biotic factors such as TSS, organic matter, and pH of the studied soil samples demonstrated that amount of TSS was varied depending on the area and fluctuated between 1.58 and 2.68%. This finding was supported by many other researchers ,,. The soil samples collected from the different areas were generally poor in their organic matter content compared with other cultivated areas, which have clay or silt nature, and there was no big difference between the areas. This might be attributed to the sandy nature of these areas. Moisture content of the samples was also relatively low (0.78-5.2%). This is in agreement with desert soil characteristics. pH values of all samples were alkaline (9.5-10.5). In this respect, Egyptian soil was mentioned in most areas as alkaline ,. The amount of Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , and K + in tested soil samples was wide ranged. The amount of Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , and K + contents in dry soil varied between 20 μg/g, 3-10 μg/g, 5.8-10.8 mg/g, and 0.26-0.78 mg/g, respectively, in all samples tested of the four localities. This is almost in agreement with the results previously obtained from Egyptian soils ,. Several investigations mentioned that fungal population in a certain soil is more influenced by several factors such as its salt content, organic matter content , water content, pH value, and the type of soil. Seventy-two species and six species varieties belonging to 32 genera of fungi were collected from GH (17 genera and 28 species+2 varieties), from WA (21 genera and 37 species+1 variety), from PF (29 genera and 56 species+3 varieties), and from PR (18 genera and 33 species+3 varieties) on glucose-Czapek's agar at 28±1 o C. The results obtained from the four localities were similar, and the most common genera were Aspergillus, Emericella, Penicillium, and Chaetomium. They emerged from 100, 33.3-75, 50-66.7, and 33.3-75% of the samples comprising 42.6-57.4, 1.1-32.2, 2.05-5.13, and 1.03-8.74% of total fungi, respectively. The most common species was A. terreus and its natural products of medical importance were reported by many other researchers ,, followed by E. nidulans that also produces some bioactive metabolites  and then P. chrysogenum, which was reported to have some important bioactive metabolites . In contrast, some species were common only in one or more of the four localities tested, such as A. flavus in GH, PF, and PR; B. piluliferum in WA and PF; A. ustus, F. oxysporum, F. solani, and R. stolonifer in PF; S. chartarum in PR; and A. sydowii in WA. Most of the above species were also common in soils previously tested and gathered from different localities in Egypt ,,,.
| Conclusion|| |
This survey discussed the basic similarities between fungi associated with the different localities (PR, GH, WA, and PF). There are no specific fungal flora characteristics for each locality. In addition, no considerable differences between the mycobiota recovered from one locality to another were detected. Comparative study of the genera and species for the different localities showed that they could differ in the numbers and frequency of occurrence.
| Acknowledgements|| |
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
|1.||Cavalcanti MA, Fernandes MJ, Lima DM. Diversity of filamentous fungi isolated from the soil in the semiarid area, Pernambuco, Brazil. J Arid Environ 2013; 95:49-54. |
|2.|| Porras-Alfaro A, Herrera J, Natvig DO, Lipinski K, Sinsabaugh RL. Diversity and distribution of soil fungal communities in semiarid grassland. Mycologia 2011; 103:10-21. |
|3.|| Hudson HJ. Fungal saprophytism. London: Edward Arnold Limited; 1972. |
|4.|| Ali MI. On the fungal flora of Saudi Arabia. 1-Wadi Hanifa. Bull Fac Sci Riyad Univ 1977; 8:7-20. |
|5.|| Moubasher AH, Mazen MB, Abdel-Hafez AI. Some ecological studies on Jordanian soil fungi. I-Records of mesophilic fungi Naturalia monspeliensis. Serie Bot 1977; 27:5-23 |
|6.|| Abdel-Hafez SI. Phyllosphere and phylloplane fungi of wheat cultivated in Saudi Arabia. Mycopathologia 1981; 75:33-38. |
|7.|| Halwagy R, Moustafa AF, Kamel SM. Ecology of soil mycoflora in the desert of Kuwait. J Arid Environ 1982; 5:109-125. |
|8.|| Moubasher AH, El-Dohlob SM. Seasonal fluctuations of Egyptian soil fungi. Transact Br Mycol Soc 1970; 54:45-51. |
|9.|| Moubasher AH, Moustafa AF. A survey of Egyptian soil fungi with special reference to Aspergillus, Penicillium and Penicillium related genera. Trans Br Mycol Soc 1970; 54:35-44. |
|10.||1Abdel-Fattah HM, Moubasher AH, Abdel-Hafez SI. Fungus flora of root and leaf surface of broad bean cultivated in Oasis, Egypt. Nat Monspel Ser Bot 1977; 27:167-177. |
|11.||1Moubasher AH, Abdel-Hafez SI. Further study on seasonal fluctuation of Egyptian soil fungi. Mycopathologia 1978; 63:11-19. |
|12.||1Abdel-Hafez SI, Mohawed SM, El-Said AH. Seasonal fluctuations of soil fungi of Wadi Qena at eastern desert of Egypt. Acta Mycol. 1989; XXV:113-125. |
|13.||1Abdel-Hafez AI, Mazen MB, Galal AA. Glycophilic and cellulose-decomposing fungi from soils of Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. Arab Gulf J Sci Res 1990a; 8:153-168. |
|14.||1Abdel-Hafez SI, Mazen MB, Shaban GM. Seasonal fluctuations of rhizosphere and rhizoplane fungi of Egyptian wheat plant. Bull Fac Sci Assiut Univ 1990b; 19:173-184. |
|15.||1Abdel-Hafez SI, Moharram AM, Abdel-Sater MA. Monthly variations in the mycobiota of wheat fields in El-Kharga Oasis, Western desert, Egypt. Bull Fac Sci Assiut Univ 2000; 29:195-211. |
|16.||1Mazen MB, Shaban GM. Seasonal fluctuation of non-rhizosphere soil fungi in wheat fields in Egypt. Qatar University Sci Bull 1983; 3:115-129. |
|17.||1Moubasher AH, Abdel-Hafez SI, El-Maghraby OM. Studies on soil mycoflora of Wadi Bir-El-Ain, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Cryptog Mycolog 1985; 6:129-143. |
|18.||1Mazen MB, Moubasher AH, Abdel-Hafez AI. Ecological studies on the genus Fusarium in Egyptian soils. Bull Fac Sci Assiut Univ 1991; 20:7-87. |
|19.||1Johnson LF, Curl EA, Bono JM, Fribourg HA. Methods for studying soil microflora plant disease relationships. USA: Minneapolis Publications Co.; 1959. 178. |
|20.||2Jackson ML. Soil chemical analysis. London: Cons[Table and Co; 1958. |
|21.||2Schwarzenbach G, Biedermann W. Complexons. X-Alkaline earth complexes of O, O-dihydroxy azo dyes. Helv Chim Acta 1948; 31:678-687. |
|22.||2Williams CH, Twine JR. Peach K, Tracey MV. Flame photometric method for sodium, potassium and calcium in modern methods of plant analysis. Vol V. Berlin: Springer Verlag; 1960. |
|23.||2Piper CC. Soil and plant analysis. A laboratory manual of method, for the examination of soil and determination of the inorganic substitutents of plants. New York: International Publishers Inc; 1955. |
|24.||2Alexander M. Introduction to soil microbiology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York and London 1977. |
|25.||2Menzies JD. A dipper technique for serial dilutions of soil for microbial analysis. Soil Sci Soc Am J 1957; 21:660. |
|26.||2Thom C, Raper KB. A manual of the Aspergilli. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1945. |
|27.||2Ainsworth GC. Ainsworth and Bisby′s dictionary of the fungi. Kew, Surrey, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute; 1971. |
|28.||2Barron GL. The genera of Hyphomycetes from soil. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1968. |
|29.||2Booth C. The genus Fusarium. Kew, Surrey, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute; 1971. |
|30.||3Booth C. Fusarium laboratory guide to the identification of major species. Kew, Surrey, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute; 1977. |
|31.||3Onions AH, Barron GL. Monophialidic species of Paecilomyces. Kew, Surrey, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute; 1967. |
|32.||3Domsch KH, Gams W, Anderson T-H. Compendium of soil fungi. London: Academic Press; 1980. |
|33.||3Ellis MB. Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Kew, Surrey, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute; 1971. |
|34.||3Ellis MB. More dematiaceous hyphomycetes. Kew, Surrey, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute; 1976. |
|35.||3Kendrick B. Taxonomy of Fungi imperfecti. Canada: Toronto University; 1971. |
|36.||3Moubasher AH. Soil fungi in Qatar and other Arab countries. Doha, Qatar: The Scientific And Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar; 1993. 566. |
|37.||3Pitt JI. A laboratory guide to common Penicillium species. North Ryde, NSW, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Division of Food Research; 1985. |
|38.||3Raper KB, Fennell PI. The genus Aspergillus. Baltimore, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1965. |
|39.||3Rifai MA. A revision of the genus Trichoderma. Mycol Papers 1969; 116:56. |
|40.||4Simmons EG. Typification of Alternaria, Stemphylium and Ulocladium. Mycologia 1967; 59:67-92. |
|41.||4Zycha H. Mucorineae Von Kryptogamenflora der mark brandenburg. Band Via: Pilze II-Verlag Von J Cramer. Weinheim. New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation; 1963. |
|42.||4Awaad AS, Al-Jaber NA, Zain ME. New antifungal compounds from Aspergillus terreus isolated from desert soil. Phytother Res 2012; 26:1872-1877. |
|43.||4Yurchenko AN Smetanina OF, Kirichuk NN, Yurchenko EA, Afiyatullov Sh. Sh. Biologically active metabolites of the facultative marine fungus Aspergillus terreus. Chem Nat Comp 2014; 49:1123−1124. |
|44.||4Wang CC Chiang YM, Kuo PL, Chang JK, Hsu YL. Norsolorinic acid from Aspergillus nidulans inhibits the proliferation of human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells via Fas-mediated pathway. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2008; 102:491-497. |
|45.||4Singh SB, Zink DL, Guan Z, Collado J, Pelaez F, Felock PJ, Hazuda DJ. Isolation, structure and HIV-1 integrase inhibitory activity of xanthoviridicatin E and F two novel fungal metabolites produced by Penicillium chrysogenum. Helv Chim Acta 2003; 86:3380-3385. |
|This article has been cited by|
||Non-Rainfall Moisture Activates Fungal Decomposition of Surface Litter in the Namib Sand Sea
| ||Kathryn Jacobson,Anne van Diepeningen,Sarah Evans,Rachel Fritts,Philipp Gemmel,Chris Marsho,Mary Seely,Anthony Wenndt,Xiaoxuan Yang,Peter Jacobson,Shuijin Hu |
| ||PLOS ONE. 2015; 10(5): e0126977 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|