|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 88-101
Medicinal mushrooms as a new source of natural therapeutic bioactive compounds
Waill A Elkhateeb1, Ghoson M Daba1, Paul W Thomas2, Ting-Chi Wen3
1 Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products Department, Pharmaceutical Industries Researches Division, National Research Centre, El Buhouth St., Dokki, Giza, Egypt
2 Mycorrhizal Systems Ltd, Lancashire, PR25 2SD, UK; University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK
3 The Engineering Research Center of Southwest Bio–Pharmaceutical Resources, Ministry of Education, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou Province, China
|Date of Submission||19-Mar-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||17-Apr-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||05-Jul-2019|
Waill A Elkhateeb
Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products Department, Pharmaceutical Industries Researches Division, National Research Centre, El Buhouth St., Dokki, 12311
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
In the ancient books of traditional medicines, medicinal mushrooms were occupying the headlines, and the main topics were confirming to their miraculous therapeutic powers. The presence of various phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, and terpenoids and other compounds, is the reason for their potent biological activities as anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiaging, hepatic protective, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, and much more biological activities are discovered every day. Many mushroom genera are famous for their promising therapeutic capabilities. One of the mushrooms genera attracting attention is Cordyceps which has long been used in Asian countries for maintaining long and healthy life. Numerous studies on different metabolic activities of Cordyceps have been performed both in vitro and in vivo. This review describes the importance of medicinal mushrooms with focus on Cordyceps as an example of globally commercialized mushrooms.
Keywords: bioactive, medicinal mushrooms, natural product
|How to cite this article:|
Elkhateeb WA, Daba GM, Thomas PW, Wen TC. Medicinal mushrooms as a new source of natural therapeutic bioactive compounds. Egypt Pharmaceut J 2019;18:88-101
|How to cite this URL:|
Elkhateeb WA, Daba GM, Thomas PW, Wen TC. Medicinal mushrooms as a new source of natural therapeutic bioactive compounds. Egypt Pharmaceut J [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Oct 20];18:88-101. Available from: http://www.epj.eg.net/text.asp?2019/18/2/88/262138
| Introduction|| |
Mushrooms are known from centuries to be used as food and medicine. They are a group of macrofungi belonging to ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, and they obtain their nutrition through being saprotrophs, parasites, or symbiotic as mycorrhiza . Mushrooms have a reproductive phase (fruiting bodies) and a vegetative phase (mycelia) . Mushrooms have a high nutritional value due to their contents of proteins, fats, volatile oils, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and vitamins such as vitamins B1, B2, B3, C, and ergosterol that can be easily converted into vitamin D2 ,,. Nowadays, medicinal mushrooms are regarded as functional foods, and exist as over-the-counter health supplements used in complementary and alternative medicines . The diversity of compounds extracted from mushrooms has attracted attention as a mine for novel compounds with new action mechanisms or potential activities against current life-threatening diseases . Generally, biologically active compounds exist as components of their cell wall (polysaccharides such as β-glucans), proteins, or as organic secondary metabolites (steroids, terpenes, phenolic compounds, among others). The activity of these compounds depends strongly on many factors such as the type of mushroom, its development stage, and its growing conditions . Various biological activities have been reported for extracts and/or compounds extracted from mushrooms such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiviral, hepatoprotective, anti-neurodegenerative, antiangiogenic, and hypocholesterolemic activities ,,.
Bioactive compounds in medicinal mushrooms
Various compounds are responsible for the therapeutic activities of many mushrooms genera. The main group of compounds will be highlighted as follows.
Polysaccharides represent the major compounds existing in medicinal mushrooms, and they exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities ,,. Glucan polysaccharides especially β-glucans have been reported to exhibit antimicrobial activity, hypoglycemic, and enhance immunity through the activating macrophages ,,. Biologically active glucans were extracted previously from mushroom mycelia and fruiting bodies of many mushrooms such as Pholiota nameko , Caripia montagnei , Agaricus blazei , and Lactarius rufus . Other glucans with biological activities were isolated from different mushrooms such as lentinan from Lentinula edodes , pleuran from Pleurotus ostreatus , maitake D-fraction isolated from Grifola frondosa , Schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune , and ganoderan A and B, from Ganoderma lucidum .
Terpenes are the compounds responsible for the antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities among many other biological activities exerted by mushrooms ,. The fruiting bodies and spores of Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom (G. lucidum) were previously reported as a source of several triterpenes such as ganoderic acids, lucidenic acids, and lanostane-type triterpenic acids ,,,. On the other hand, various sterols and triterpenes such as inotodiol, trametenolic acid, ergosterol, and ergosterol peroxide were previously isolated from the chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) ,,.
Phenolic compounds are responsible for antioxidant activities in mushroom extracts through acting as decomposers of peroxidase, inactivators of metals, oxygen scavengers, or inhibitors of free radicals . Phenolic compounds include phenolic acids, oxidized polyphenols, hydroxybenzoic acids, flavonoids, tannins, hydroxycinnamic acids, stilbenes, and lignans . A long list of phenolic compounds were isolated from mushrooms. Examples are the polyphenol, myricetin, isolated from Craterellus cornucopioides , pyrogallol isolated from Agaricus bisporus , grifolin and grifolin derivatives extracted from Albatrellus ovinus ; hericenones C, D, E, F, G, H isolated from Hericium erinaceus .
On the other hand, mushrooms produce many bioactive proteins and peptides, such as lectins, fungal immunomodulatory proteins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, and laccases . The antifungal peptide pleurostrin was from P. ostreatus . The antiviral peptide (SU2) was isolated from Russula paludosa . The antifungal peptide, agrocybin, was extracted from Agrocybe cylindracea . The peptide Cordymin, exhibiting anti-inflammatory activity, was isolated from Cordyceps sinensis  and from Cordyceps militaris .
There are many genera of medicinal mushrooms known for their use as a source of therapeutic bioactive compounds such as Metacordyceps spp. ([Figure 1]), Ganoderma spp. ([Figure 2]), Jelly Mushroom Auricularia spp. ([Figure 3]), and Truffles Ex. Termania ([Figure 4], photographs taken by Waill A. Elkhateeb).
In this review, Cordyceps will be discussed in detail as an example of a promising source of therapeutic bioactive compounds.
The fruiting bodies of Cordyceps fungi often erupts from the head of the larva and adult stages of many different species of insects . Cordyceps are entomophagous fungi from the phylum Ascomycota, family Ophiocordycipitaceae, order Hypocreales, and they are known to parasitize many orders of insects at different life stages from larva to adult stages ,,,. Numerous species within the genus have a golden reputation due to their long safe history of use in traditional medicines . They have been used for more than2000 years in China for treating infectious diseases ,,. The Cordyceps genus contains some of the most highly prized and revered of all medicinal fungi. Grasslands, providing habitat for Thitarodes ghost moths and thus for C. sinensis, are a particularly important habitat .
The most famous and widely used species of Cordyceps is C. sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. The host range of this species is wide, including different species of Lepidopteran larvae ,, A similar species, C. militaris (L.:Fr.) link or as commonly known, the orange caterpillar fungus , has a similar chemical composition and medicinal biological activities as C. sinensis ,,.
Cordyceps in the wild
Generally, Cordyceps species feed on insect larvae and sometimes they also parasite on mature insects. Cordyceps grow on all groups of insects − crickets, cockroaches, bees, centipedes, black beetles, and ants, to name a few. Although there are several species known to have medical value, only a few are cultivated and the most popular and well known are C. sinensis and C. militaris . However, Cordyceps are not limited to insects and may grow on other arthropods. This group belongs to the order Hypocreales, which includes 912 known species that are assigned to the families Cordycipitaceae and Ophiocordycipitaceae ,,. Cordyceps only refers to the macrofungi, and these macrofungi were previously placed in the old genus Cordyceps Fr. (Clavicipitaceae, Clavicipitales). Owing to their special edible and medicinal values, Cordyceps is very popular in China, where a huge domestic market exists .
Important components of Cordyceps
Cordyceps have a wide range of various compounds, some are characterized as nutritional compounds, since they possess all the important amino acids, vitamins such as K and E, besides the water-soluble B vitamins (B1, B2, and B12). In addition, they contain many sugars, including monosaccharides, disaccharides, and oligosaccharides, and many complex polysaccharides, proteins, sterols, nucleosides, and trace elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Cu, V, Pi, Se, Ni, Sr, Si, Ti, Cr, Ga, Zn, and Zr). Cordyceps contains abundance of polysaccharides, which represents in the range of 3–8% of the overall weight, and commonly originated from the fruiting bodies. Cordyceps polysaccharide is one of the main bioactive components .
Cordyceps sinensis natural products
Ophiocordyceps sinensis (≡C. sinensis (Berk.) Sacc.) is the most expensive and the most extensively studied Cordyceps species. C. sinensis contains crude fats, proteins, fiber, carbohydrate, cordycepin (30-deoxyadenosine), cordycepic acid (D-mannitol), polysaccharide, and a series of vitamins. The therapeutic applications of Cordyceps are focusing mostly on the major effects of increasing utilization of oxygen and production of ATP, besides stabilizing sugar metabolism in the blood. Such activities may be attributed to compounds such as cordycepin, cordycepic acid and numerous vitamins, polysaccharides and trace elements. Although all the medically active compounds of C. sinensis are still unknown, at least two chemical compounds, cordycepin and cordycepic acid, have been purified and identified as medically important active compounds. It is now believed that cordycepic acid is, in fact, D-mannitol, and that cordycepin is 30-deoxyadenosine, a purine alkaloid .
Cordyceps militaris natural products
Of all the Cordyceps species, C. militaris has been most successfully cultivated and most intensively studied. Most Cordyceps products in the marketplace are developed from the fruiting bodies of cultivated C. militaris. According to chemical analysis, C. militaris contains cordycepin, adenosine, polysaccharide, mannitol, trehalose, polyunsaturated fatty acids, δ-tocopherol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and β-(1→3)-D-glucan ,,,,,.
Cultivation and growing of Cordyceps
The natural fruiting bodies of Cordyceps are very rare and are costly to collect. Moreover, natural populations of key Cordyceps species are decreasing rapidly due to overcollection , presenting the need for increased cultivation of Cordyceps in vitro using an artificial medium ,. Examples of some medicinally important Cordyceps species such as C. sinensis, artificial O. sinensis, C. militaris, and artificial C. militaris are shown in [Figure 5].
|Figure 5 Medicinally important Cordyceps species: (a) Cordyceps sinensis mature fruiting body in the wild, (b) C. sinensis dug out from soil, (c) dryC. sinensis product, (d) artificial Ophiocordyceps sinensis on living caterpillars, (e) Cordyceps militaris growing in the wild, (f) artificial C. militaris growing on insects, (g) artificial Cordyceps militaris growing on a culture medium (photographs taken by Ting-Chi Wen and Waill A. Elkhateeb).|
Click here to view
The growth of C. sinensis on sabouraud’s dextrose with yeast extract broth medium was investigated using different carbon sources, nitrogen sources, and additives (vitamins and minerals) ,.
Sucrose was the best carbon source for C. sinensis growth, while beef extract and yeast extract were the best nitrogen sources. Moreover, using folic acid significantly increased the yield, and adding calcium chloride and zinc chloride as micronutrients and macronutrients, respectively, increased the total yield significantly .
One of the remarkably important artificial techniques for C. sinensis culturing was using sterile rice media at 9–13°C for 40–60 days, followed by lowering temperature to 4°C for inducing stroma production . It should be mentioned that the Cordyceps mycelium growth depends on different factors such as growth media, temperature, pH, and some environmental factors , but after trying different media, potato dextrose agar was proven to be the best medium using a pH range of 8.5–9.5 at 20–25°C .
C. militaris cultivation is much easier than C. sinensis in both solid and broth media using numerous carbon and nitrogen sources ,. Farming of C. militaris mycelium using artificial media has lately been developed specially for the purpose of Cordycepin production using different methods such as surface culture  and submerged culture ,. Cereals such as rice have been commonly used with some organic substrates for commercial production of C. militaris stromata ,. Other successful substrates include cottonseed coats, wheat grains, bean powder, corn grain, corn cobs, millet, and sorghum ,,,.
Mycelia production for the purpose of biologically active compounds is also possible and has been conducted in submerged culture ,,. C. militaris cultivation has been further advanced, resulting in a high yield of stromata production and high content of Cordycepin ,. C. militaris cultivation was also investigated using different media ,,.
Uses and health benefits of Cordyceps
Species of Cordyceps are widely researched due to the endless list of medicinal biological activities exerted by their extracted compounds as shown by some examples in [Table 1] and [Table 2], [Figure 6] with various medical and nutritional values. The main uses of Cordyceps have been known in oriental old medicine for curing respiratory diseases such as asthma and bronchial cases, as well as for providing body with energy and for boosting sexual power.
|Figure 6 Typical chemical structures of common compounds found within Cordyceps spp. .|
Click here to view
Modern research now confirms the efficiency of Cordyceps in many other fields. One of the breakthroughs of modern research has been the discovery of cordycepin, which has a strong antimicrobial activity against almost all species of bacteria. Cordyceps showed strong activity against tuberculosis and human leukemia, as shown in many clinical trials in Asia and elsewhere .
Cordyceps was shown to be potent in increasing the maximum amount of oxygen and to improve respiratory function . There are a number of components like deoxynucleosides produced by C. sinensis, such as the compounds 2′, 3′ deoxyadenosine which is marketed under the trade name ‘Didanosine’ in the USA as a medication for the treatment of AIDS. Similarly, Quinic acid derived from Cordycepin (3′ deoxyadenosine) present in Cordyceps is found to have antiviral and antibacterial properties ,. Numerous studies have verified the benefits of C. sinensis in treating disturbances in heart rhythm such as cardiac arrhythmia and chronic heart failure .
Antitumor and anticancer activities of Cordyceps
Various biologically active compounds exerting an anticancer activity were extracted from Cordyceps. Cordycepin has an antitumor activity in B16 melanoma cells ,. Cordycepin induced apoptosis in Mouse Leydig tumor cell in vitro . Also, it inhibits cell proliferation and further apoptosis of human colorectal carcinoma using SW480 and SW620 in vitro ,. C. militaris was found to inhibit U937 cells grown in a dose-dependent manner and also in the treatment of human leukemia .
Cordyceps has shown promising activities in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells  and in some cases could reduce tumor size ,. Moreover, some Cordyceps species have anti-leukemia activities ,.
Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of Cordyceps
Cordyceps are found to regulate and also lower blood sugar levels by improving metabolism of glucose . Furthermore, Cordyceps can increase secretion of glucokinase and hexokinase which are glucose-regulating enzymes secreted by the liver . Polysaccharides are the key players in showing the hypoglycemic activity of Cordyceps. Hypercholesterolemia is an indicator for high risk of cardiovascular attack. Many studies have reported the role of C. sinensis in lowering the total cholesterol level and the level of triglycerides. It also helps in increasing the ratio of the good cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) to bad cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) .
Improving kidney functions
The results of some clinical trials have shown that the administration of C. sinensis could significantly improve kidney function and overall immunity of patients suffering from chronic renal failure . The mechanism of kidney-enhancing activity of Cordyceps is owing to its capability to elevate 17-ketosteroid and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels in the body, protect sodium pump activity of tubular cells, accelerate tubular cells regeneration, and reduce calcium content in certain tissues ,,,,.
Treatment of liver disorders
Cordyceps is universally involved as a cotreatment of chronic hepatitis B and C. Extract mixture of Cordyceps in combination with other medicinal mushrooms in addition to the antiviral drug, lamivudine, was used for treating hepatitis B ,. On the other hand, daily consumption of Cordyceps improved liver functions in patients suffering from posthepatic cirrhosis .
Reduction of fatigue
Cordyceps has been used from centuries as a remedy for weakness and fatigue by residents living in the high mountains of Tibet to give them energy which is achieved by increasing cellular ATP. Nowadays, Cordyceps is used by athletes to fight fatigue and weakness and to increase endurance and improve energy levels. Additionally, the results of clinical trials involving elderly patients with chronic fatigue indicated that treatment with C. sinensis resulted in improvement of fatigue, increasing cold intolerance ,,.
Cordyceps protect the organs and glands
C. sinensis also has obvious effects on other organ systems . For example, in the central nervous system, C. sinensis has cooling, anticonvulsant, and sedative activities. For the respiratory, C. sinensis has a strong relaxant activity on the bronchi, considerably, and also plays a key role in the contraction of trachea caused by histamine. It also has an anti-asthmatic effect and prevents pulmonary emphysema. Concerning the endocrine system, C. sinensis increases the secretion of adrenaline and has effects as a male hormone. Polysaccharides extracted from Cordyceps can increase corticosterone level in the plasma.
Cordyceps is used in traditional medicine for decades to improve fertility in men. A study has proven the positive effect of using C. militaris mycelium on sperm motility, morphology, productivity, and enhancement of sexual activity. Moreover, consuming Cordyceps resulted in improving liver function tests in patients suffering from posthepatic cirrhosis .
Anti-inflammatory activity of Cordyceps
Generally, cordycepin is the metabolite responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of many Cordyceps species ,,. Ethanolic extracts of cultured mycelia and fruiting bodies of C. militaris exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect . On the other hand, an alkaline extract of C. militaris showed a potent in-vivo anti-inflammatory effect against nociception and peritonitis in mice . Adenosine is another compound existing in Cordyceps species with a wide spectrum of activities related to preventing tissue damage such as anti-inflammatory properties ,,,.
The methanolic fraction of C. militaris fruiting bodies exerted an anti-inflammatory activity resulting from the presence of cordycerebroside A, soyacerebroside I, and glucocerebroside, which prevented the accumulation of the pro-inflammatory iNOS protein .
Cordyceps antioxidant and antiaging activities
Protecting against damage of cells by free radicals is one of the biological activities exerted by Cordyceps species extracts. This activity corresponds to polysaccharide fraction ,,,. C. sinensis has potent antioxidant and antiaging properties.
Cordyceps side effects
Cordyceps is generally safe in recommended dosages and no major side effects were reported. .
Global market of Cordyceps
The Cordyceps industry is strong and growing. Various products were commercialized for compounds originated from Cordyceps species. Some major Cordyceps-based companies are listed in [Table 2], and examples for some cosmetics-containing C. sinensis and C. militaris extracts and their beneficial functions are declared in [Table 3]. Global production of just O. sinensis is estimated to be in the region of 85–185 tons  with further tonnage provided by other Cordyceps species. The harvesting and sale of noncultivated Cordyceps can have a significant impact on household incomes in the regions in which it is collected ,,,. The intense global interest and value assigned to Cordyceps has led to a large range of commercial products derived from these fungi all over the world as shown in [Figure 7],[Figure 8],[Figure 9].
|Table 3 Cosmetic products containing Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris extracts and their functions|
Click here to view
|Figure 7 Cordyceps products made in China: (a) Cordyceps sinensis powder capsule (www.naturessunshine.comwww.naturessunshine.com), (b) C. sinensis powder capsule (www.alibaba.comwww.alibaba.com), (c) C. militaris soup (www.aliexpress.comwww.aliexpress.com), (d) Cordyceps mycelia extract powder as food supplements (www.alibaba.comwww.alibaba.com), (e) Cordyceps-king capsule (www.ecvv.com), (f) C. sinensis cream (www.aliexpress.comwww.aliexpress.com).|
Click here to view
|Figure 8 Cordyceps products made in the USA: (a) Cordyceps sinensis powder capsules (hostdefense.comhostdefense.com), (b) fruiting body extract of C. sinensis (www.nusapure.comwww.nusapure.com), (c) C. sinensis powder sachets with coffee (www.iherb.comwww.iherb.com), (d) C. sinensis antistress capsules (https://organika.comhttps://organika.com), (e) Cordyceps powder capsules (www.paradiseherbs.com), (f) C. sinensis powder capsules (https://usahealthyinc.comhttps://usahealthyinc.com), (g) Cordyceps powder capsules (www.drbvitamins.comwww.drbvitamins.com).|
Click here to view
|Figure 9 Cordyceps products made in different Asian and European countries: (a) Cordyceps sinensis supplement capsules made in Japan (https://cordyceps.tokyohttps://cordyceps.tokyo), (b) C. sinensis supplement capsules made in Thai (www.amazon.comwww.amazon.com), (c) Cordyceps tea sachets made in South Korea (www.alibaba.comwww.alibaba.com), (d) Cordyceps powder capsules made in Czech (www.terezia.euwww.terezia.eu), (e) C. sinensis capsules made in Germany (www.zeinpharma.comwww.zeinpharma.com), (f) C. sinensis capsules made in the UK (www.healthy.co.ukwww.healthy.co.uk).|
Click here to view
Medicinal mushrooms keep surprising us by their promising biological activities ,,,, in a way that encourage studying their effects in vitro and in vivo in order to discover their potent compounds to win the war with the currently spreading life-threatening diseases.
Being functional foods, mushrooms represent a prolific source of bioactive compounds with countless therapeutic capabilities working toward preventing and controlling many diseases. A large number of mushrooms originated from biologically active compounds have been isolated and have been reported previously. Several studies explored promising activities of mushrooms, and those studies were conducted using crude extracts of mushrooms. Further researches are required in order to isolate and identify bioactive compounds responsible for such biological activities. Moreover, clinical trials and more in-vivo experiments have to be carried out to confirm mushrooms’ capabilities as sources of compounds having medical applications.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Sánchez C. Bioactives from mushroom and their application. In Munish Puri. Food bioactives. Cham: Springer; 2017. 23–57.
Patel S, Goyal A. Recent developments in mushrooms as anti-cancer therapeutics: a review. Biotech 2012; 2:1–15.
Rathee S, Rathee D, Rathee D, Kumar V, Rathee P. Mushrooms as therapeutic agents. Braz J Pharmacog 2012; 22:459–474.
Ayeka PA. Potential of mushroom compounds as immunomodulators in cancer immunotherapy: a review. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2018; 2018:7271509.
Guillamón S, García-Lafuente A, Lozano M, Rostagno MA, Villares A, Martínez JA. Edible mushrooms: role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Fitoterapia 2010; 81:715–723.
Ma L, Chen H, Dong P, Lu X. Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus
. Food Chem 2013; 139:503–508.
Xu T, Beelman RB. The bioactive compounds in medicinal mushrooms have potential protective effects against neu-rodegenerative diseases. Adv Food Technol Nutr Sci Open J 2015; 1:62–66.
Elkhateeb WA, Zaghlol GM, El-Garawani IM, Ahmed EF, Rateb ME, Moneim AE. Ganoderma applanatum secondary metabolites induced apoptosis through different pathways: in vivo and in vitro anticancer studies. Biomed Pharmacother 2018; 101:264–277.
Kozarski M, Klaus A, Niksic M, Jakovljevic D, Helsper JP, Van Griensven LJ. Antioxidative and immunomodulating activities of polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus bisporus
,Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus. Food Chem 2011; 129:1667–1675.
Friedman M. Mushroom polysaccharides: chemistry and antiobesity, antidiabetes, anticancer, and antibiotic properties in cells, rodents, and humans. Foods 2016; 5:80.
Wei H, Yue S, Zhang S, Lu L. Lipid-lowering effect of the pleurotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom) polysaccharide from solid-state fermentation on both macrophage-derived foam cells and zebrafish models. Polymers 2018; 10:492.
Batbayar S, Lee DH, Kim HW. Immunomodulation of fungal b-glucan in host defense signaling by dectin-1. Biomol Ther 2012; 20:433–445.
Yang Y, Zhao X, Li J, Jiang H, Shan X, Wang Y et al.
A β-glucan from Durvillaea Antarctica has immunomodulatory effects on RAW264.7 macrophages via toll-like receptor 4. Carbohydr Polym 2018; 191:255–265.
Minato KI, Laan LC, van Die I, Mizuno M. Pleurotus citrinopileatus polysaccharide stimulates anti-inflammatory properties during monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. Int J Biol Macromol 2019; 122:705–712.
Li H, Lu X, Zhang S. Anti-inflammatory activity of polysaccharide from Pholiota nameko. Biochemistry 2008; 73:669–675.
Queiroz LS, Nascimento MS, Cruz AK, Castro AJ, Maria de Fátima VM, Baseia IG, Leite EL. Glucans from the caripiamontagnei mushroom present anti-inflammatory activity. Int Immunopharm 2010; 10:34–42.
Song HH, Chae HS, Oh SR et al.
Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effect of Agaricus blazei extract in bone marrow-derived mast cells. Am J Chin Med 2012; 40:1073–1084.
Ruthes AC, Carbonero ER, Córdova MM, Baggio CH, Santos ARS, Sassaki GL, Iacomini M. Lactarius rufus (1 ! 3), (1 ! 6)-bd-glucans: structure, antinociceptiveand anti-inflammatory effects. Carbohydr Polym 2013; 94:129–136.
Sasaki T, Takasuka N. Further study of the structure of lentinan, an anti-tumor polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes. Carbohydr Res 1976; 47:99–104.
Karácsonyi S, Kuniak L. Polysaccharides of Pleurotus ostreatus
: isolation and structure of pleuran, an alkali-insoluble b-D-glucan. Carbohydr Polym 1994; 24:107–111.
Kidd PM. The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment. Altern Med Rev 2000; 5:4–27.
Bae AH, Lee SW, Ikeda M, Sano M, Shinkai S, Sakurai K. Rod-like architecture and helicity of the poly(C)/ schizophyllan complex observed by AFM and SEM. Carbohydr Res 2004; 339:251–258.
Ruan W, Popovich DG. Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoid extract induces apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells (Caco-2). Biomed Prev Nutr 2012; 2:203–209.
McKenna DJ, Jones K, Hughes K. Reishi botanical medicines: the desk reference for major herbal supplements. 2nd ed. New York, Oxford: The Haworth Herbal Press; 2002. 825–855
Iwatsuki K, Akihisa T, Tokuda H, Ukiya M, Oshikubo M, Kimura Y et al.
Lucidenic acids P and Q, methyl lucidenate P, and other triterpenoids from the fungus Ganoderma lucidum
and their inhibitory effects on Epstein− Barr virus activation. J Nat Prod 2003; 66:1582–1585.
Akihisa T, Nakamura Y, Tagata M, Tokuda H, Yasukawa K, Uchiyama E et al.
Anti‐inflammatory and anti‐tumor‐promoting effects of triterpene acids and sterols from the fungus Ganoderma lucidum
. Chem Biodivers 2007; 4:224–231.
Tang W, Jian-Wen L, Wei-Ming Z, Dong-Zhi W, JianJiang Z. Ganoderic acid T from Ganoderma lucidum
mycelia induces mitochondria mediated apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Life Sci 2006; 80:205–211.
Van Q, Nayak BN, Reimer M, Jones PJ, Fulcher RG, Rempel CB. Anti-inflammatory effect of Inonotus obliquus
, Polygala senega L., and Viburnum trilobum in a cell screening assay. J Ethnopharmacol 2009; 125:487–493.
Park YM, Won JH, Kim YH et al.
In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of themethanol extract of Inonotus obliquus
. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 101:120–128.
Dziezak JD. Antioxidants − the ultimate answer to oxidation. Food Technol 1986; 40:94.
D’Archivio M, Filesi C, Vari R et al.
Bioavailability of the polyphenols: status and controversies. Int J Mol Sci 2010; 11:1321–1342.
Palacios I, Lozano M, Moro C, D’arrigo M, Rostagno MA, Martínez JA, Villares A. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds occurring in edible mushrooms. Food Chem 2011; 128:674–678.
Witkowska MA, Zujko ME, Mironczuk-Chodakowska I. Comparative study of wild edible mushrooms as sources of antioxidants. Int J Med Mushrooms 2011; 13:335–341.
Nukata M, Hashimoto T, Yamamoto I, Iwasaki N, Tanaka M, Asakawa Y. Neogrifolin derivatives possessing anti-oxidative activity from the mushroom Albatrellus ovinus
. Phytochem 2002; 59:731–737.
Mizuno T. Bioactive substances in Hericium erinaceus
(Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (Yamabushitake), and its medicinal utilization. Int J Med Mushrooms 1999; 1:105–119.
Chu KT, Xia LX, Ng TB. Pleurostrin, an antifungal peptide from the oyster mushroom. Peptides 2005; 26:2098–2103.
Wang JB, Wang HX, Ng TB. A peptide with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity from the medicinal mushroom Russula paludosa. Peptides 2007; 28:560–565.
Ngai PHK, Zhao Z, Ng TB. Agrocybin, an antifungal peptide from the edible mushroom Agrocybe cylindracea. Peptides 2005; 26:191–196.
Wang J, Liu YM, Cao W, Yao KW, Liu ZQ, Guo JY. Anti-inflammation and antioxidant effect of cordymin, a peptide purified from the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps sinensis
, in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Metab Brain Dis 2012; 27:159–165.
Wong JH, Ng TB, Wang H, Sze SC, Zhang KY, Li Q, Lu X. Cordymin, an antifungal peptide from the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris. Phytomedicine 2011; 18:387–392.
Zhou X, Gong Z, Su Y, Lin J, Tang K. Cordyceps fungi: natural products, pharmacological functions and developmental products. J Pharm Pharmacol 2009; 61:279–291.
Paterson RR. Cordyceps a traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory? Phytochemistry 2008; 69:1469–1495.
Liu X, Huang K, Zhou J. Composition and antitumor activity of the mycelia and fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris
. J Food Nutr Res 2014; 2:74–79.
Wang XL, Yao YJ. Host insect species of Ophiocordyceps sinensis
: a review. Zookeys 2011; 127:43–59.
Dworecka-Kaszak B. Cordyceps fungi as natural killers, new hopes for medicine and biological control factors. Ann Parasitol 2014; 60:151–158.
Singh RP, Pachauri V, Verma RC, Mishra KK. Caterpillar fungus (Cordyceps sinensis
) − a review. J Eco-friendly Agr 2008; 3:1–15.
Zhu JS, Halpern GM, Jones K. The scientific rediscovery of an ancient Chinese herbal medicine: Cordyceps sinensis
Part I. J Altern Complement Med 1998; 4:289–303.
Boesi A, Cardi F. Cordyceps sinensis medicinal fungus: traditional use among tibetan people, harvesting techniques, and modern uses. Herbal Gram 2009; 83:52–61.
Devkota SY. [Cordyceps sinensis
(Berk.) Sacc.]: Traditional utilization in Dolpa District, Western Nepal. Our Nature 2006; 4:48–52.
Shrestha B, Sung J. Notes on Cordyceps
species collected from central region of Nepal. Mycobiology 2005; 33:235–239.
Gong CL, Pan ZH, Zheng XJ. Antioxidation of cultured Cordyceps militaris
growing on silkworm pupa. Proceedings of International Workshop on Silk handcrafts cottage industries and silk enterprises development in Africa, Europe, Central Asia and the Near East, & Second Executive Meeting of Black, Caspian seas and Central Asia Silk Association (BACSA), Bursa, Turkey, 2006; 615–620.
Huang L, Li QZ, Chen YY. Determination and analysis of cordycepin and adenosine in the products of Cordyceps
spp. Afr J Microbiol Res 2009; 3:957–961.
Das SK, Masuda M, Sakurai A. Medicinal uses of the mushroom Cordyceps militaris
: current state and prospects. Fitoterapia 2010; 81:961–968.
Halpern G. Healing mushrooms. Garden City Park, New York, USA: Square One Publishers Inc.; 2007.
Buenz EJ, Bauer BA, Osmundson TW, Motleym TJ. The traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis
and its effects on apoptotic homeostasis. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 96:19–29.
Sung GH, Hywel-Jones NL, Sung JM, Luangsa-ard JJ, Shrestha B, Spatafora JW. Phylogenetic classification of Cordyceps
and the clavicipitaceous fungi. Stud Mycol 2007; 57:5–69.
Kepler RM, Sung GH, Harada Y, Tanaka K et al.
Host jumping onto close relatives and across kingdoms by Tyrannicordyceps (Clavicipitaceae) gen. nov. and Ustilaginoidea (Clavicipitaceae). Am J Bot 2012; 99:1–10.
Smiderle FR, Baggio CH, Borato DG, Santana-Filho AP et al.
Anti-inflammatory properties of the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris
might be related to its linear (1→ 3)-β-D-glucan. PLoS One 2014; 9:e110266.
Reis FS, Barros L, Calhelha RC, Ćirić A et al.
The methanolic extract of Cordyceps militaris
(L.) Link fruiting body shows antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antihuman tumor cell lines properties. Food Chem Toxicol 2013; 62:91–98.
Ohta Y, Lee JB, Hayashi K, Fujita A et al.
In vivo anti-influenza virus activity of an immunomodulatory acidic polysaccharide isolated from Cordyceps militaris
grown on germinated soybeans. J Agr Food Chem 2007; 55:10194–10199.
Yun YH, Han SH, Lee SJ, Ko SK, Lee CK, Ha NJ, Kim KJ. Anti-diabetic effects of CCCA, CMESS, and cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris
and the immune responses in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Nat Prod Sci 2003;9:291–298.
Zhang YJ, Li E, Wang CS. Ophiocordyceps sinensis, the flagship fungus of China: terminology, life strategy and ecology. Mycology 2012; 3:2–10.
Yin H, Qin S. Effects of cultivation conditions on cell growth of inoculums of Cordyceps sinensis
. Mod Food Sci Technol 2009; 25:188–190.
Li SP, Yang FQ, Tsim KW. Quality control of Cordyceps sinensis
, a valued traditional Chinese medicine. J Pharma Biomed Anal 2006; 41:1571–1584.
Arora RK, Singh N, Singh RP. Characterization of an entomophagous medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis
(Berk.) Sacc. of Uttarakhand, India. Bioscan 2013; 8:195–200.
Arora RK, Singh RP. Effect of nutritional sources on mycelial growth of Caterpillar mushroom Cordyceps sinensis
(Berk.) Sacc. J Mycol Plant Pathol 2009; 39:114–117.
Seema S, Subir R, Prem SN, Mohammed A. Optimization of nutritional necessities for in vitro culture of Ophiocordyceps sinensis
. Int. J Sci Res 2012; 3:1523–1528.
Cao L, Ye Y, Han RF. Fruiting body production of the medicinal Chinese caterpillar mushroom Ophiocordyceps sinensis
in artificial medium. Int J Med Mushrooms 2015; 17:1107–1112.
Calam CT. The evaluation of mycelial growth. In Norris JR, Ribbons DW, eds. Methods in microbiology. New York: Academic Press; 1971. 1. 567–591.
Lo HC, Hsieh C, Lin FY, Hsu TH. A systematic review of the mysterious caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis
in DongChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo) and related bioactive ingredients. J Trad Complement Med 2013; 3:16–32.
Shrestha B, Park YJ, Han SK. Instability in in vitro fruiting of Cordyceps militaris
. J Mushroom Sci Prod 2004; 2:140–144.
Xiong CH, Xia YL, Zheng P. Developmental stage-specific gene expression profiling for a medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris
. Mycology 2010; 1:25–66.
Masuda M, Urabe E, Honda H, Sakurai A, Sakakibara M. Enhanced production of cordycepin by surface culture using the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris
. Enzyme Microb Tech 2007; 40: 1199–1205.
Mao XB, Eksriwong T, Chauvatcharin S, Zhong JJ. Optimization of carbon source and C:N ratio for cordycepin production by submerged cultivation of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris
. Process Biochem 2005; 40:1667–1672.
Du AL, Zhang X, Zhang HZ. A new high cordycepin Cordyceps militaris
cultivar ‘Haizhou 1’. Acta Hortic Sin 2010; 37:1373–1374.
Chen YS, Liu BL, Chang YN. Effects of light and heavy metals on Cordyceps militaris
fruit body growth in rice grainbased cultivation. Korean J Chem Eng 2011; 28:875–879.
Wen TC, Kang JC, Li GR. Effects of different solid culture condition on fruit body and cordycepin output of Cordyceps militaris. Guizhou Agr Sci 2008; 36:92–94.
Sung JM, Park YJ, Lee JO. Effect of preservation periods and subcultures on fruiting body formation of Cordyceps militaris
in vitro. Mycobiology 2006; 34:196–199.
Gao SY, Wang FZ. Research of commercialized cultivation technology on Cordyceps militaris
. North Horti 2008; 9:212–215.
Jin LY, Du ST, Ma L. Optimization on mathematical model of basic medium of Cordyceps militaris cultivation. J Northwest A F Univ (Nat Sci Ed) 2009; 37:175–179.
Xie CY, Gu ZX, Fan GJ. Production of cordycepin and mycelia by submerged fermentation of Cordyceps militaris
in mixture natural culture. Apply Biochem Biotechnol 2009; 158:483–492.
Huang SJ, Tsai SY, Lee YL. Nonvolatile taste components of fruiting bodies and mycelia of Cordyceps militaris
. Food Sci Technol 2006; 39:577–583.
Sun JD, Xiong ST, Wang P. Study on biological and cultivated characters of Cordyceps militaris
SN3. J Fungal Res 2009; 7:148–152.
Xiaoli L, Kaihong H, Jianzhong Z. Composition and antitumor activity of the mycelia and fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris
. J Food Nutr Res 2014; 2:74–79.
Shrestha B, Sang KH, Sung JM, Sung GH. Fruiting body formation of Cordyceps militaris
from multi-ascospore isolates and their single ascospore progeny strains. Mycobiology 2012; 40:100–106.
Hong IP, Kang PD, Kim KY, Nam SH, Lee MY, Choi YS, Humber RA. Fruit body formation on silkworm by Cordyceps militaris
. Mycobiology 2010; 38:128–132.
Wang SX, Liu Y, Zhang GQ, Zhao S, Xu F, Geng XL, Wang HX. Cordysobin, a novel alkaline serine protease with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity from the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps sobolifera
. J Biosci Bioeng 2012; 113:42–47.
Mishra R, Yogesh U. Cordyceps sinensis: the Chinese Rasayan − Current Research Scenario. Int J Res Pharma Biomed Sci 2011; 2:1503–1519.
Yoshikawa N. Antitumor activity of Cordycepin in mice. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2004; 31: S51–S53.
Yoshikawa N. Cordycepin and Cordyceps sinensis
reduce the growth of human promyelocytic leukaemia cells through the Wnt signaling pathway. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2007; 34: S61–S63.
Jen CY, Lin CY, Huang BM, Leu SF. Cordycepin Induced MA-10 mouse leydig tumor cell apoptosis through caspase-9 pathway. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011; 2011:984537.
Wong YY, Moon A, Duffin R, Barthet-Barateig A, Meijer HA, Clemens MJ, de Moor CH. Cordycepin inhibits protein synthesis and cell adhesion through effects on signal transduction. J Biol Chem 2010; 285:2610–2621.
Wu JY, Leung HP, Wang WQ, Xu C. Mycelial fermentation characteristics and anti-fatigue activities of a Chinese caterpillar fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis strain Cs-HK1 (Ascomycetes). Int J Med Mushrooms 2014; 16:105–114.
Park C. Growth inhibition of U937 leukemia cells by aqueous extract of Cordyceps militaris
through induction of apoptosis. Oncol Rep 2005; 13:1211–1216.
Santhosh KT, Sujathan K, Biba V. Naturally occurring entamogenous fungi having anti-cancerous properties. Proceedings of the 25th Swadeshi Science Congress Kerala 2014; 206:97.
Nakamura K, Konoha K, Yamaguchi Y, Kagota S, Shinozuka K, Kunitomo M. Combined effects of Cordyceps sinensis
and methotrexate on hematogenic lung metastasis in mice. Receptors Channels 2003; 9:329–334.
Shin KH, Lim SS, Lee S, Lee YS et al.
Anti-tumour and immunostimulating activities of the fruiting bodies of Paecilomyces japonica
, a new type of Cordyceps
spp. Phytother Res 2003; 17:830–833.
Park JG, Son YJ, Lee TH, Baek NJ, Yoon DH, Kim TW, Cho JY. Anticancer efficacy of Cordyceps militaris
ethanol extract in a xenografted leukemia model. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2017; 8474703:7.
Yalin W, Ishurd O, Cuirong S, Yuanjiang P. Structure analysis and antitumor activity of (1→ 3)-β-D-glucans (cordyglucans) from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis
. Planta Med 2005; 71:381–384.
Yang FQ, Li DQ, Feng K, Hu DJ, Li SP. Determination of nucleotides, nucleosides and their transformation products in Cordyceps by ion-pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr 2010; 1217:5501–5510.
Zhang W, Li J, Qiu S, Chen J, Zheng Y. Effects of the exopolysaccharide fraction (EPSF) from a cultivated Cordyceps sinensis
on immunocytes of H22 tumor bearing mice. Fitoterapia 2008; 79:168–173.
Vestergaard P, Rejnmark L, Mosekilde L. Diabetes and its complications and their relationship with risk of fractures in type 1 and 2 diabetes. Calcif Tissue Int 2009; 84:45.
Qi W, Zhang Y, Yan YB, Lei W, Wu ZX, Liu N, Fan Y. The protective effect of cordymin, a peptide purified from the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps sinensis
, on diabetic osteopenia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2013; 985636:6.
Liu Y, Wang J, Wang W, Zhang H, Zhang X, Han C. The chemical constituents and pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis
. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2015; 575063:12.
Seitz LM. Ergosterol as a measure of fungal growth. Phytopathology 1979; 69:1202–1206.
Yang F, Guan J, Li S. Fast simultaneous determination of 14 nucleosides and nucleobases in cultured Cordyceps using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Talanta 2007; 73:269–273.
Zhao CS, Yin WT, Wang JY, Zhang Y, Yu H, Cooper R, Zhu JS. Cordyceps Cs-4 improves glucose metabolism and increases insulin sensitivity in normal rats. J Altern Complement Med 2002; 8:403–405.
Kim DJ, Kang YH, Kim KK, Kim TW, Park JB, Choe M. Increased glucose metabolism and alpha-glucosidase inhibition in Cordyceps militaris
water extract-treated HepG2 cells. Nutr Res Pract 2017; 11:180–189.
Koh JH. Hypocholesterolemic effect of hot water extract from mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis
. Biol Pharm Bull 2003; 26:84–87.
Zhou L. Short term curative effect of cultured Cordyceps sinensis
(Berk) Sacc.Mycelia in Chronic Hepatitis B. Chang Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1990; 19:53–55.
Xu F, Huang JB, Jiang L, Xu J, Mi J. Amelioration of cyclosporin nephrotoxicity by Cordyceps sinensis in kidney-transplanted recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1995; 10:142–143.
Fan H, Yang FQ, Li SP. Determination of purine and pyrimidine bases in natural and cultured Cordyceps using optimum acid hydrolysis followed by high performance liquid chromatography. J Pharma Biomed Anal 2007; 45:141–144.
Wang SH, Yang WB, Liu YC, Chiu YH, Chen CT, Kao PF, Lin CM. A potent sphingomyelinase inhibitor from Cordyceps mycelia contributes its cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress in macrophages. J Lipid Res 2011; 52:471–479.
Wang M, Meng XY, Le Yang R, Qin T, Wang XY, Zhang KY, Xue FQ. Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides can enhance the immunity and antioxidation activity in immunosuppressed mice. Carbohydr Polymers 2012b; 89:461–466.
Ng TB, Wang HX. Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps
, a prized folk medicine. J Pharma Pharmacol 2005; 57:1509–1519.
Chen PX, Wang S, Nie S, Marcone M. Properties of Cordyceps sinensis
: a review. J Funct Foods 2013; 5:550–569.
Chen DG. Effects of Jinshuibao capsule on the quality of life of patients with heart failure. J Admin Tradit Chin Med 1995; 5:40–43.
Lin WH, Tsai MT, Chen YS, Hou RC, Hung HF, Li CH, Jeng KC. Improvement of sperm production in subfertile boars by Cordyceps militaris
supplement. Am J Chin Med 2007; 35:631–641.
Won SY, Park EH. Anti-inflammatory and related pharmacological activities of cultured mycelia and fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris
. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 96:555–561.
Kim HG, Shrestha B, Lim SY, Yoon DH, Chang WC, Shin DJ, Sung JM. Cordycepin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by the suppression of NF-κB through Akt and p38 inhibition in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2006; 545:192–199.
Yang ML, Kuo PC, Hwang TL, Wu TS. Anti-inflammatory principles from Cordyceps sinensis. J Nat Prod 2011; 74:1996–2000.
Tsai YJ, Lin LC, Tsai TH. Pharmacokinetics of adenosine and cordycepin, a bioactive constituent of Cordyceps sinensis
in rat. J Agr Food Chem 2010; 58:4638–4643.
Kim TW, Yoon DH, Cho JY, Sung GH. Anti-inflammatory compounds from Cordyceps bassiana
(973.3). FASEB J 2014; 28(1 Suppl):973–973.
Park SY, Jung SJ, Ha KC, Sin HS, Jang SH, Chae HJ, Chae SW. Anti-inflammatory effects of Cordyceps
mycelium (Paecilomyces hepiali
, CBG-CS-2) in raw 264.7 murine macrophages. Orient Pharm Exp Med 2015; 15:7–12.
Chiu CP, Liu SC, Tang CH, Chan Y et al.
Anti-inflammatory cerebrosides from cultivated Cordyceps militaris
. J Agr Food Chem 2016; 64:1540–1548.
Ji DB, Ye J, Li CL, Wang YH et al.
Antiaging effect of Cordyceps sinensis
extract. Phytother Res 2009; 23:116–122.
Yu R, Yang W, Song L, Yan C, Zhang Z, Zhao Y. Structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps militaris
. Carbohydr Polym 2007; 70:430–436.
Winkler D. Caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis
) production and sustainability on the Tibetan Plateau and in the Himalayas. Asian Med 2009; 5:291–316.
Winkler D. Yartsa Gunbu (Cordyceps sinensis
) and the fungal commodification of Tibet’s rural economy. Economic Botany 2008; 62:291–305.
Sharma S. Trade of Cordyceps sinensis
from high altitudes of the Indian Himalaya: conservation and biotechnological priorities. Curr Sci Bangalore 2004; 86:1614–1618.
Hapuarachchi KK, Elkhateeb WA, Karunarathna SC, Cheng CR, Bandara AR, Kakumyan P et al.
Current status of global Ganoderma cultivation, products, industry and market. Mycosphere 2018; 9:1025–1052.
Elkhateeb WA, Daba GM, Sheir D, Negm El-Dein A, Fayad W, Elmahdy ME et al.
GC-Mass analysis and In vitro
hypocholesterolemic, anti- rotavirus, anti-human colon carcinoma activities of the crude extract of a Japanese Ganoderma Sp
. Egypt Pharma J 2019; 18.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]