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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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May-August 2018
Volume 17 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 61-120

Online since Thursday, September 6, 2018

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Capparis spinosa L.: a natural source of pharmaceuticals p. 61
Mohamed Amin El-Ansari, Lamyaa Fawzy Ibrahim, Mohamed Sharaf
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_9_18  
Capparis spinosa L. (Caper) is an important source of different secondary metabolites of beneficial activities on human health. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of many bioactive compounds such as spermidine, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, stigmasterol, tocopherols, and carotenoids. Biological studies reveal important antimicrobial, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, and antiviral properties. The present review summarizes information concerning biological activities of some compounds isolated from C. spinosa for the management of several diseases.
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MINI REVIEW Top

Flavonoids as chemosystematic markers of Astragalus bombycinus Boiss. and Astragalus peregrinus Vahl growing in Egypt p. 67
Sameh R Hussein, Mona M Marzouk, Salwa A Kawashty
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_39_17  
The genus Astragalus is represented by 2500 species, which are widespread in temperate and tropical regions. Astragalus species contain mainly flavonoids (isoflavones) and triterpenes, whereas phenolic acids and polysaccharides are of less distribution. The biological activities such as hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular activities have been reported for numerous species of the genus. On the basis of various botanical characteristics, two Astragalus spp. (Astragalus bombycinus Boiss. and Astragalus peregrinus Vahl), native to Egypt, are very closely related species. Their flavonoid constituents were surveyed to find the interrelationships between them. The flavonoids were reported as six flavones, three flavonols, one C-glycosyl flavonoid, and three isoflavones. The flavonoid profile supports the placement of the two species together in one section (Platyglottis) but as two distinct species.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Bioactivity and chemical constituents of Gleditsia triacanthos L. leaves p. 70
Aisha H Abou Zeid, Seham S El-Hawary, Wedian E Ashour, Reda S Mohammed, Amany A Sleem
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_44_17  
Background and objective Gleditsia triacanthos L. is a deciduous tree belonging to the family Fabaceae. It is used in folk medicine as it possesses important biological activities: antimutagenic, anticancer, cytotoxic, and rheumatoid arthritis-treating properties. The study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of the nonpolar extract of the plant in addition to investigation of its chemical composition. Materials and methods The dried powdered leaves of G. triacanthos were successively extracted with solvents of increasing polarities: petroleum ether (PE), chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous ethanol; moreover, the total ethanol extract was also prepared. The PE extract was fractionated into unsaponifiable matter (USM) and fatty acids, which were methylated to give FAME fractions, which are subjected to GC/MS analysis. Results GC/MS analysis of USM and FAME revealed that 24 compounds represented 76.86% of the total fraction of USM, with squalene (22.68%) as the major compound followed by nonacosane (21.03%) and isophytol (14.70%). Twenty-one compounds of FAME fraction representing 85.87% were identified, with methyl 9,12,15-octadecatrienoate (31.37%) as the major compound followed by methyl hexadecanoate (19.35%) and methyl 9,12-octadecadienoate (13.52%). The unsaturated fatty acid represented 45.89% of the total fraction. GLC of the sterol fraction isolated from the PE revealed the identification of campesterol (51.23%), stigmasterol (42.34%), β sitosterol (4.88%), and cholesterol (1.55%). The PE extract exhibited the highest analgesic and antipyretic activities (81.73 and 91.10% potency, respectively) in comparison with tramadol and paracetamol (100% potency), correspondingly, whereas total ethanol extract exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity followed by ethyl acetate and PE extract (74.60, 66.66 and 62.69% potency, respectively) in comparison with indomethacin (100% potency). Conclusion The results of our study suggest that the PE extract of G. triacanthos leaves extracts can be used as an alternative therapy for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activities.
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Evaluation of an inhibitory effect of edible mushroom extracts against rotavirus infection p. 77
Abdou K Allayeh, Reham M Elbaz, Mohamed O Osman, Norehan M Saeed
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_37_17  
Background According to recent statistics by the WHO, the annual mortality rate associated with diarrhea is 30 deaths per 100 000 among Egyptian children younger than 5 years. Nearly 3.9% of the reported deaths are because of rotavirus infection. It is necessary to look for alternative treatment against rotavirus. Aim and methods The aim of this study is to investigate the antiviral activity of aqueous (AqE) and ethanol (EtOHE) extracts of the fruiting bodies of Agaricus spp and Pleurotus ostreatus against rotavirus infection using cell culture-based MTT assay. Results The tested extracts demonstrated significant inhibition effects against rotavirus infection up to 96.7, 90.6, 86.3, and 83.1% at concentration of 1000 μg/ml of P. ostreatus EtOHE, P. ostreatus AqE, Agaricus spp EtOHE, and Agaricus spp AqE, respectively, when added at zero time of the infection. Nothing was observed when extracts were added after viral infection. The synergistic activity was observed when different extracts were combined. Our results exhibited an inhibitory effect against different phases of rotavirus infection. Conclusion The use of edible mushrooms as a potential antiviral substance might be an alternative treatment against rotavirus infection. Nonetheless, more investigations are requiring for studying the efficacy in vivo and for segregating their fractions, which might clarify the mechanism of the inhibitory effect.
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Synthesis of new indole derivatives using one- pot multicomponent reaction with antiproliferative towards normal and cancer cell lines p. 85
Nagwa M Fawzy, Hanaa M Roaiah, Enas M Awad, Joanna Wietrzyk, Magdalena Milczarek, AbdelMohsen M Soliman
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_45_17  
Background and objectives Indoles derivatives are natural products, which are well known for their anticancer activity due to its ability to induce cell death for many cancer cell lines. The aim of this study is to synthesize some new heterocyclic compounds derived from 1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde, malononitrile, and different reagents namely: active methylene derivatives, amine derivatives, and resorcinol. The newly synthesized derivatives were prepared and confirmed by their IR, Mass, and 1NMR spectra; and were also tested for their antiproliferative potency towards human breast cancer (MCF-7) and normal murine fibroblast (BALB/3T3) cell lines. Materials and methods The synthesis of new indole derivatives (3a-e) was achieved by the three-component reactions of 1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde (1), ethyl 3-oxobutanoate, 5,5-dimethyl cyclohexane-1,3-dione (Dimidone), barbituric, thiobarbituric acid, and cyclohexanone (2a-e), respectively; and malononitrile in the presence of triethylamine. Compound (4) was afforded by fusing of compound (3a) with thiourea. Also, compounds (5a, b) were yielded by the grinding of compounds (3c, d) with formic acid. On the other side, one-pot synthesis of 7a-d has been achieved via three-component of 1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde (1), and malononitrile in the presence of amine derivatives (namely, 2,4-dinitroaniline, 3-nitroaniline, 3-bromoaniline, and 4-methoxyaniline) (6a-d), respectively, by condensation. Also, compounds (8, 9) were obtained by refluxing of compounds (7a, b) with formic acid. Compound (10) was afforded by condensing the mixture of 1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde (1) with resorcinol in the presence of malononitrile and triethylamine. The newly synthesized derivatives were tested for their antiproliferative potency towards human breast cancer (MCF-7) and normal murine fibroblast (BALB/3T3) cell lines. Results indicated that they showed significant in-vitro antiproliferative activity. Results and conclusion A novel protocol for the preparation of indole derivatives (3a-e) using the three-component reactions of 1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde (1) with active methylene compounds namely: ethyl 3-oxobutanoate, 5, 5-dimethy cyclohexane-1, 3-dione (Dimidone), barbituric acid, thiobarbituric acid, and cyclohexanone (2a-e); and malononitrile in ethanol and triethylamine as catalyst were proceeded in one step. Also, compounds (3a, 3c, d) were reacted with thiourea/and formic acid, respectively, to give compounds (4 and 5a, b). The 3-indole derivatives (7a-d) were formed via condensation of the amine derivatives (6a-d) with indole aldehydes (1) and malononitrile. Compounds (8 and 9) were afforded by condensation of compounds (7b, c) with formic acid, 2-amino-chromene (10) was produced by reaction of resorcinol, 1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde (1), and malononitrile. The in-vitro study showed that most of the prepared compounds gave similar activity towards breast cancer cell line MCF-7 but did not reveal the cytotoxic potency against normal cell line. This means that most of these compounds kill cancer cells but have no or slight effects on normal cells. The newly synthesized derivatives were tested for their antiproliferative potency towards human breast cancer (MCF-7) and normal murine fibroblast (BALB/3T3) cell lines. The results showed that the in-vitro antiproliferative activity of the prepared compounds was significant and could thus be investigated for further in vivo and pharmacokinetic studies.
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Comparative study on crude and partially purified laccase from Polyporus durus ATCC 26726 in the decolorization of textile dyes and wastewater treatment p. 94
Hala R Wehaidy, Heba M El-Hennawi, Samia A Ahmed, Mohamed A Abdel-Naby
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_2_18  
Background and objective In textile processing, 50% of the dye is released as effluent which is considered as hazardous contaminant that threats environment and human life. The use of laccase enzyme for dye decolorization is cost effective and environmentally friendly. So, the main objective of the present study is the production of microbial laccase with high yield using low-cost substrates. The study also involved comparing and evaluating the dye decolorization efficiency of both crude and partially purified laccase enzymes. Materials and methods Six fungal strains were tested for laccase productivity. Some agro-industrial wastes were evaluated for laccase production by the most potent fungus. The produced laccase was partially purified by acetone precipitation. Both the crude and the partially purified laccase were evaluated for decolorization of some textile dyes and two synthetic wastewater solutions. Results and conclusion The fungus Polyporus durus ATCC 26726 exhibited the highest laccase productivity among all the tested fungi. Maximal enzyme productivity (2297 U/ml) was reached after 7 days by submerged fermentation using a medium containing 60 g/l wheat bran with the addition of 1 mmol/l copper on the fifth day of fermentation. The produced laccase was partially purified by 40% acetone concentration with an 8.1-fold purification factor. Both the crude and the partially purified laccase exhibited high efficiency to decolorize reactive blue 19, acid blue 225, and reactive violet 5 dyes. The crude enzyme exhibited 100 and 96.4% decolorization activities against the synthetic wastewater solutions A and B, respectively. However, the decolorization activity of the partially purified enzyme was 100% against both solutions A and B. Hence laccase enzyme from P. durus ATCC 26726 could be used effectively for the removal of textile dye pollutants in both its crude and partially purified form without the need to redox mediators.
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Synthesis and biological activity of some new fused pyrazole-c-nucleosides p. 104
Samy A El-Assaly, Abdel-Hameed A Ismail, Sahr A Sobaih, Tarek B El-Naggar
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_4_18  
Background and objectives Owing to the high antiviral, antibiotic, antitumor, and antifungal activities associated with various C-nucleosides, much attention has been paid on the synthesis of this class of compounds. We synthesized new pyrazole-C-nucleosides through one-pot reaction of open sugar, phenyl hydrazine hydrochloride, and different bases in presence of acetic acid and sodium acetate as a catalyst. These nucleosides, containing pyrazole moiety, have been marked as biologically active compounds.
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Exploration of using the algal bioactive compounds for cosmeceuticals and pharmaceutical applications p. 109
Haidy S Basily, Mamdouh M Nassar, Guzine I.El Diwani, Sanaa A Abo El-Enin
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_6_18  
Purpose The research is aimed at describing the extraction and determination methods of carotenoids, fatty acids, phenolic, flavonoids, proteins, and carbohydrates as bioactive compounds from different microalgae species grown in different media. Materials and methods The microalgae used in this study are Scenedesmus spp. and Spirulina platensis, which are microalgae species of freshwater; Dunaliella salina and Oscillatoria limnetica, which are of salt stress media; and microalgae community Bloom of municipal wastewater plant at Zenin, Giza. Carotenoids were extracted using jojoba oil as fatty oil, and their contents were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. From the cell residue, total lipid was extracted by ultrasonic bath with cosolvent mixture of n-hexane and isopropanol (3 : 2 v/v). The fatty acid profile is determined by gas chromatographic analysis. Phenolic contents are determined with Folin–Ciocalteu reagent after preparing the ethanolic extract. Methanolic extraction was done for determination of total flavonoid contents by colorimetric method. Total protein was determined by Kjeldahl method, and finally, total carbohydrate content is evaluated after extraction with barium carbonate by spectrophotometer at 485 nm. Results and conclusion The results of each assay showed that D. salina and O. limnetica accumulated carotenoids more than microalgae cells of Bloom, which have carotenoids content more than Scenedesmus spp. and S. platensis (151.4, 136.3, 123.4, 11.93, and 7.5 μg/g, respectively). Gas chromatographic analysis of extracted lipid exhibited the high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 and ω-6) found in O. limnetica and Bloom. Total phenolic compounds were presented in amounts higher than flavonoids in all the studied strains. All of the biomass of microalgae that was subject to analysis had a relatively high protein content, where Scenedesmus spp. had the highest value (210 mg/g) and D. salina the lowest (21.5 mg/g. The total carbohydrate content, which plays an important role in cosmetics products, was detected at the highest concentration in Scenedesmus spp. (6.6 mg/g), followed by S. platensis (6.0 mg/g), O. limnetica (3.5 mg/g), D. salina (2.3 mg/g), and Bloom (1.5 mg/g). The results obtained in this study prove that microalgae are a rich source of bioactive compounds for pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries.
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