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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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September-December 2017
Volume 16 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 133-198

Online since Tuesday, December 26, 2017

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding breast cancer among women of Kaduna Metropolis Highly accessed article p. 133
Nanloh S Jimam, Dauda A Dangiwa, Elizabeth O Salami
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_42_16  
Context The incidence of breast cancer disease is on the rise in Nigeria. There is an urgent need for adequate knowledge regarding the disease among the risky populations for necessary self-care practices as an intervention measure. Aim The main purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women concerning breast cancer in Kaduna Metropolis of Kaduna State. Settings and design It was a cross-sectional study conducted in Kaduna Metropolis. Materials and methods Semistructured questionnaires were administered to 300 respondents who consisted of women within the ages of 18 years and older and residing in Kaduna Metropolis. Statistical analysis The collected data were analyzed using the IBM statistical package for social sciences, version 20.0 software programmer. Results Although the results showed that most of the respondents (93%) were aware of breast cancer through different sources of information, their average knowledge scores on risk factors (30.36), signs, and symptoms (48.7%) were below average; however, their knowledge on the different screening methods was slightly above average (53.8%). Conclusion The result showed respondents’ high levels of awareness on breast cancer but poor knowledge on the risk factors, signs and symptoms, and screening practices despite their positive attitudes toward the disease.
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Comparative studies of free and immobilized Aspergillus flavus onto functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes for soyasapogenol B production p. 138
Hala A Amin, Ahmed A Haroun
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_28_17  
Objective This research focuses on the microbial transformation of soybean saponins to soyasapogenol B (SB) by Aspergillus flavus cells producing saponin hydrolase (CSH) as a whole-cell biocatalyst. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been reported to have several properties that render them ideal support systems with the advantage of being further functionalizable at their surface. Materials and methods CSH was covalently immobilized onto carboxy-functionalized MWCNTs by different methods including direct immobilization as well as immobilization by glutaraldehyde or carbodiimide chemistry. Results and conclusion Results showed that direct immobilization of CSH onto oxidized MWCNTs was the best method accompanied by about an 80% immobilization yield. The optimum temperature was around 50°C for both the free and the immobilized CSH (MWCNTs–CSH conjugate). The apparent activation energy (Ea) was increased from 1.05 to 2.84 kcal/mol by immobilization. The immobilized enzyme also showed significantly improved thermal stability. The calculated half-life values of MWCNTs–CSH conjugate at 70, 80, and 90°C (55, 33.3, and 29.7 h, respectively) were higher than those of free CSH (36.1, 28.0, and 23.2 h, respectively). The MWCNTs–CSH conjugate showed higher Km (0.45 μmol) compared with the free CSH (0.41 μmol), whereas Vmax for the MWCNTs–CSH conjugate was smaller than that for free CSH. The MWCNTs–CSH conjugate morphology was examined using transmission electron microscope.
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Antioxidant and antihyperglycaemic effects of naringenin arrest the progression of diabetic nephropathy in diabetic rats p. 144
Dilpesh Jain, Sasmita Saha
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_24_17  
Background Long-standing diabetes declines the kidney function and is responsible for diabetic nephropathy (DN). The plant and the phytoconstituents have a promising therapeutic potential in the management of diabetes and diabetes complications. Aim This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of naringenin in diabetic-induced nephropathy in experimental rats. Materials and methods Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet and injected with streptozotocin (STZ) (35 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal). At 48 h after injection, hyperglycaemia was confirmed by estimating the blood glucose levels and the rats were left untreated for 4 weeks. The diabetic rats were orally treated with different doses of naringenin 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight, for the next 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment body weight and kidney weight were recorded, serum and urine were used for various biochemical estimations. Oxidative stress levels and histopathological studies were performed on isolated kidneys. The efficacy of treatment was statistically analysed with diabetic control rats. Results Increased blood glucose, lipid levels and abnormal kidney functions were noticed in diabetic rats. Moreover, increased levels of oxidative stress markers and altered histological structure were noted in the kidney of diabetic rats, which mimic DN. Naringenin treatments (25 and 50 mg/kg) in diabetic rats significantly restored their kidney functions and reversed hyperglycaemia and lipids level. Hyperfiltration and increased microalbuminuria, urinary albumin excretion and creatinine clearance were effectively attenuated within 4 weeks of naringenin treatments. Increased levels of oxidative stress and histological alteration were restored towards normal. Conclusion Naringenin treatments in diabetic rats arrest the progression of DN due to its multivariate actions such as antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant.
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Effect of some of the natural organic sources on rice tissue culture p. 152
Ahmed M Amer, Gehad M Mohamed, Mona H Hussein, Mohammed Z Sedik, Usama I Aly
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_32_17  
Objective The main goal of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of glutamine, tryptophan, and casein hydrolysate on callus induction and shoot regeneration in two Egyptian rice cultivars (Sakha104 and Giza178). Materials and methods Different concentrations of tryptophan, glutamine, and casein hydrolysate were investigated separately for the maximum production of callus and shoot regeneration. Results and conclusion Although tryptophan demonstrated a stimulatory effect on callus induction of Sakha104 cultivar, it showed no positive effect on callus initiation of Giza178 genotype and shoot regeneration of both cultivars. Inclusion of glutamine did not enhance either callus induction or shoot regeneration in both cultivars. Supplementation of appropriate amounts of casein hydrolysate resulted in positive response in both callus induction and shoot regeneration. In addition, these responses varied significantly between the two tested cultivars. Irrespective of type and concentration of the natural organic source, Sakha104 proved to have better regeneration capacity than that of Giza178.
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Physicochemical characterization of olmesartan medoxomil: polymer solid dispersions by hot melt extrusion for dissolution rate enhancement p. 157
Zaheer Abbas, N.G. Nanjunda Swamy
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_17_17  
Aim The prime objective of this investigation was to improve solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug, olmesartan medoxomil, by preparation of stable solid dispersions (SDs) of low glass transition temperature employing hot-melt extrusion technique. Materials and methods Soluplus (SOL) was used as a primary solubilizing agent along with different solubility/absorption enhancers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8000 and Kolliphor F127. After extrusion, the extrudates were pelletized, and physical state of the drug was assessed using powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry techniques. Results The SDs were found to be amorphous, thermodynamically and physicochemically stable. Scanning electron microscopy of the formulations revealed a surface, indicating absence of crystallinity. The drug content was found to be in the range of 98.16±1.3 to 99.98±1.1%. The dissolution performance of the extrudates was compared with that of the pure drug, and substantial improvement was observed in the order of SOL-PEG-8000>SOL-KF127>SOL only. In-vitro drug release rate was Higuchi matrix controlled, and the release rate mechanism was found to be non-Fickian. Stability studies over a period of 3 months indicated amorphous nature of drug in the formulation, and no significant deviations were observed in the drug content and in-vitro drug dissolution characteristics. Conclusion Hot melt extrusion technology promises an ideal platform for enhancing the solubility and dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs. The results obtained suggest that olmesartan medoxomil in the form of SDs has potential for oral drug delivery and could be an efficacious approach for enhancing therapeutic potential.
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Evaluation of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties of Sabal grown in Egypt p. 168
Abeer Y Ibrahim, Samah A El-Newary, Mohamed A El-Raey
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_23_17  
Objective Evaluation of in-vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities of alcoholic extracts of leaves and berries of Sabal palmetto, as well as in-vivo antitumor ability of alcoholic extract of berries of S. palmetto against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma is the aim of this study. Materials and methods Antioxidant properties of crude alcoholic extract of leaves and berries as well as two fractions of berries extract, ethyl acetate and butanol, were evaluated in-vitro compared with the standard materials, l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and butylated hydroxytoluene. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated in-vitro using cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibition assays. Moreover, in-vivo antitumor effect of S. palmetto alcoholic extract was evaluated using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model. Data were presented as mean±SE, and data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance test. Results and conclusion Crude extract from berries showed potent antioxidant activity compared with extract of leaves. Crude extract of berries was fractionated into two fractions: ethyl acetate and butanol. Ethyl acetate fraction showed good free radical scavenging activity, reducing capability, metal ion chelating activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity, and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Meanwhile, butanol fraction produced the highest superoxide anion scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. Anti-inflammatory activity of S. palmetto berries hydroalcoholic extract and its fractions showed weak COX-1 inhibition activity, whereas COX-2 was inhibited (100%), compared with celecoxib drug (72% at 1000 ppm). The ethyl acetate fraction of S. palmetto significantly reduced the viable Ehrlich cell count and increased nonviable count with amelioration of all hematological parameters. This amelioration reflected on increasing median survival time and significant increase (P<0.05) in lifespan. S. palmetto berries are candidate for intensive investigations as an alternative biological source for Saw palmetto.
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Comparative hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Berberis asiatica stem bark and root p. 184
Swati Patni, Neeraj Kumar, Archana N Sah, Harsahay Meena, Munish Batra
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_44_16  
Context Berberis asiatica, a shrub with common name Kilmora in Kumaun, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, and Mount Abu of India, is used as a hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, diuretic, antimicrobial, strong wound healer, and antirheumatic medicine. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate B. asiatica stem bark and root extract for their antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity. Materials and methods The stem bark and root extracts were obtained with methanol for determining antioxidant activity and hydroalcoholic solvent for hepatoprotective activity using maceration process. The methanolic and hydroalcoholic extracts of B. asiatica stem bark and root were evaluated for in-vitro antioxidant activity using various methods, and the hepatoprotective activity was also assessed against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in rats at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Results The half maximal inhibitory concentration value of root and stem bark extract for DPPH was found to be 102.31 and 120.7 μg/ml and for ABTS it was 32.24 and 26.724 μg/ml, respectively. There were significantly higher restorations of enzyme level on treatment with B. asiatica root extract (200 mg/kg) than with stem bark extract (200 mg/kg) observed. Conclusion The present study showed that both the stem bark and the root of B. asiatica possess antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity, although the root possesses significantly higher activity as well as higher antioxidant compounds − namely, total phenol, ascorbic acid, tannin, and flavonoid − compared with stem bark.
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Eco-friendly coloration of silk and flax fabrics with natural dye enhanced by ultraviolet radiation p. 192
Heba M El-Hennawi, Safia A Mahmoud, Amira A Ragheb
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_31_17  
Background and objectives Plants are the main source of natural colorant as they are widely available and can be considered as zero cost dyes, as they are obtained from plants planted for other purposes. All the parts of plants are used for extracting natural color, and most of them have antimicrobial and antifungal values. The importance using of natural dye is not restricted only to its antimicrobial or other medicine value but also to its global benefit through elimination of environmental pollution, caused by usage of synthetic dyes. The disadvantage of coloring fabric with natural dye is its fastener properties, as natural dye has no affinity to the fabric. The objective of the present work is to produce an eco-friendly colored fabric produced through use of safe materials (no dyeing salts or mordant) with the aid of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The coloring component from Chelidonium majus was extracted using boiling water, and examination was done on its coloration effect on flax and silk fabrics before and after being exposed to UV radiation for both extracted dye and fabrics. Materials and methods Natural dye from UV-irradiated powder of C. majus was extracted using boiling water. The dye was used in coloration of flax and silk fabrics through dyeing process and screen printing. The effect of irradiated treatment time, dyeing bath conditions (time and temperature) as well as fixation type of printed samples has been studied. The effect of UV radiation on the morphology structure of both fabrics was illustrated by scanning electron microscope. Results and conclusion UV radiation improved the color strength (K/S) and fastness properties for both colored fabrics either dyed or printed. The optimum dyeing bath conditions used for silk and flax samples were 30°C for 30 min and 90°C for 1 h, respectively. The printed silk samples fixed by thermofixation and printed flax samples fixed using steamer have given better color strength. All dyed samples have antimicrobial properties.
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