Figure 4 Effect of palm pollen treatment on mRNA expression of GSK, TNF-β, NFκB, and c-Fos following hepatocellular carcinoma induction. GAPHD was used as an internal control for calculating mRNA fold changes. Data are expressed as means±SEM (n=10). A P value less than 0.05 is considered significant. Groups having the same letter are not significantly different from each other, while those having different letters are significantly different from each other. C-Fos, cellular oncogene-Fos; GSK, glycogen synthase kinase; NFκB, nuclear factor kappa-β; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.